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Clin Path Hematology


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What are some functions of the blood?
Carries supplies:
-O2 to RBC
carries waste:
What is the anticoagulent preferred for use in cats and dogs?
What values are in a CBC?
-Cell Counts (RBC,WBC,platelets)
-WBC Diff
-reticulocyte count
What are the 3 components of the PCV?
1. RBC at bottom (highest SG)
2. Buffy coat (WBC)
3. Serum plasma on top
What does the RBC mass indicate in a PCV?
body's ability to move O2
If the buffy coat is wider than 1% what does this indicate?
TP measures?
amount of protein in the plasma
What features of the cell do we look at?
What are the 5 types of white blood cells?
1. Neutrophil
2. Lymphocyte
3. Monocyte
4. Eosinophil
5. Basophil
What is an increase in number of neutrophils called?
What does lymphocytosis indicate?
increase in number of lymphocytes
What is a decrease in total WBC count called?
What is the function of RBC's?
carry hemoglobin (O2)
What produces the RBC's?
bone marrow
What are some reasons for RBC production decrease?
-diseased kidneys
-body does not detect blood loss
-bone marrow quits
What Dx lab tests indicate anemia?
-decreased circulating RBC's
-decreased PCV
-decreased HgB (hemoglobin)
In regenerative anemia how does the bone marrow react?
responds by increasing RBC production
In non-regenerative anemia how does the bone marrow react?
bone marrow does not respond
Reticulocytes are released in what type of anemia?
Regenerative Anemia
What is MCV?
Mean Corpuscular Volume
What does normocytic mean?
Normal size cell
If the cells are normocytic in anemia what does this indicate?
chronic disease
What does microcytic mean?
small size cells
What does microcytic cells indicated in anemia?
iron deficiency
What is macrocytic mean?
large size cells
What does macrocytic cells incidate in anemia?
When normal HgB concentration is reached what happens to RBC's?
They stop dividing
With some anemia why do RBC's continue to divide?
the concentration of HgB is to low
What is hypochromic?
-decreased HgB
What is normochromic?
normal HgB
What is increased HgB called?
What is the most common type of anemia (90%)?
macrocytic, hypochromic anemia
What is MCH?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
What does MCH measure?
mean wt of HgB in average RBC
What is MCHC?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
What are Reticulocytes?
immature RBC
What color do Reticulocytes stain?
Reticulocytes contain?
ribosomes, mRNA
What does a reticulocyte count indicate?
-bone marrow response
Cats have what two types of reticulocyte forms?
-Aggregate form
-Punctate form
Aggregate reticulocytes become punctuate form when?
they mature
Aggregate reticulocytes represent?
what has just been released from the bone marrow
Aggregate form looks like?
large clumps
cell bluish
Punctate form looks like?
2-8 small granules
cell not bluish
What type of cell arrangement is Rouleaux?
stacks of cells
What increases with a Rouleaux cell arrangement?
fibrinogen and globulin
What type of cell arrangement has clumps of cells?
Agglutination is seen with what type of disease?
immune mediated disease
Anisocytosis means?
variation in size
Abnormally shaped cells is called?
Schizocytes are?
RBC fragments
What are some reasons for schizocytes?
-Iron deficiency
Acanthocytes are?
-"spur cells"
-irregular spicules coming off RBC
-few, unevenly distributed
What causes acanthocytes?
change in membrane cholestrol
Echinocytes are?
-"burr cells"
-regular short spicules
-more numerous
What causes echinocytes?
Crenation - artifact of slow drying
Dogs - renal disease, lymphosacroma, rattlesnake venom
Describe a Spherocyte?
-loss of biconcave disk
-little or no central pallor
-decreased cell membrane
What causes spherocytes?
immune mediated disease
Describe a Leptocyte?
-thin, increased cell membrane
-traget cells - look like bulls eye
Describe a Stomatocyte?
-looks like human mouth
What are the red cell inclusions?
-Basophilic stippling
-Howell-Jolly Bodies
-Nucleated RBC
-Heinz Bodies
What caused Basophilic stippling?
lead posioning
What is a Howell Jolly Body?
-nuclear remnant
Nucleated RBC's are?
-immature RBC
-precursor to mature RBC
-normally resides in bone marrow
What are Heinz Bodies?
Denatured hemoglobin
What blood parasite causes feline infectious anemia?
Leukocytosis is?
elevated TWBC
(usually Neutrophils)
What is the number one reason for an elevated WBC?
What is a stress leukogram?
physiological response to stress that shows elevated TWBC
What is present in a stress leukogram?
Leukopenia is?
Decreased TWBC
What causes leukopenia?
-bone marrow disease
What are neutrophils?
What is the function of a neutrophil?
to consume pathogens
What is the function of a Lymphocyte?
(B and T cells)
What are the B cells responsible for?
What are the T cells responsible for?
cellular immunity
What are monocytes?
immature macrophages
What is the function of Eosinophils?
Band neutrophils are?
immature neutrophils
Band neutrophils indicate?
large infection
What does a "left shift" refer to?
shift to immature cells
What is the number one job of platelets?
Platelets is the body's indicator to?
clot blood
What are the measures of total protein?
What is the function of Albumin?
-blood pressure
-keeps fluid in vessels
-shuttles different things around body
What is the function of Globulin?
-defense system
What is the function of Fibrinogen?
-Strands to help hold clot together
A clot consists of?
What are the two paths of fibrin production?
1. Intrinsic - intravascular component
2. Extrinsic - extravascular
ACT and APTT are coagulation tests for?
intrinsic pathway
Bleeding time is a test for?
platelet function
OSPT is a coagulation test for?
extrinsic pathway

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