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A&P chapters 10, 11, 12, &13


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Lymphocytes that resides in the lymph nodes, spleen or other lymphoid tissues, where it is induced to replicate by antigen binding and helper T cell interactions; its progeny form memory cells or plasma cells.
B cell
Antibody-producing "machine"; produces huge numbers of antibodies with the same antigen specificity; represents further specialization of B cell clone descendants.
Plasma cell
A regulatory T cell that binds with a specific antigen presented by a macrophage; upon circulating into spleen and lymph nodes, it stimulates production of other cells to help fight invader; acts both directly and indirectly by releasing lymphokines.
Helper T cell
Also called cytolytic or killer T cell; activated by antigen presented by a macrophage; recruited and activity enhanced by helper T cells; it speciality is killing virus-invaded body cells and cancer cells; it is involved in rejection of foreign tissue g
Cytotoxic T cell
Descendant of activated B cell or any class of T cell, generated during initial immune response, may exist in body for years after, enabling it to respond quickly and efficiently to subsequent infections or meetings with same antigen.
Memory cell
Engulfs and digests antigens that it encounters and presents parts of them on its plasma membrane for recognition by T cells bearing receptors for same antigen; this function, antigen presentation, is essential for normal cell-mediated responses; also re
Protein produced by B cell or by plasma cell; antibodies produced by plasma cells are released into body fluids where they attach to antigens, causing neutralization, precipitation, or agglutination, which "mark" the antigens for destruction by
Chemicals released by sensitized T cells.
Chemicals released by activated macrophages.
Group of blood-borne proteins activated after binding to antibody-covered antigens; causes lysis of microorganism and enhances inflammatory response.
Where is IgD found?
Virtually always attached to B cell.
What is IgD biological function?
Believed to be cell surface receptor of immunocompetent B cell; important in activation of B cell.
Where is IgM found?
Attached to B cell; free in plasma.
What is IgM biological funtion?
When bound to B cell membrane, serves as antigen receptor; first Ig class released to plasma by plasma cells during primary response; potent agglutinating agent; fixes complement.
Where is IgG found?
Most abundant antibody in plasma; 75% to 85% of circulatory antibodies.
What is IgG biological function?
Main antibody of both primary and secondary responses; crosses placenta and provides passive immunity to fetus; fixes complement.
Where is IgA found?
Some in plasma; dimer in secretions such as saliva, tears, intestinal juice, and milk.
What is IgA biological function?
Protects mucousal surfaces; prevents attachement of pathogens to epithelial cell surfaces.
Where is IgE found?
Secreted by plasma cells in skin, mucosae of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and tonsils.
What is IgE biological function?
Becomes bound to mast cells and basophils; when cross-linked by antigens, triggers release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cell or basophil that mediate inflammation in certain allergic responses.
Foramen ovale become:
fossa ovale
Ductus arteriosus becomes:
ligament arteriosum
Ductus venous becomes:
ligamentum venosum
Umbilical arteries become:
medial umbilical ligaments
Umbilical vein becomes:
ligament teres
Secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stimulation by the sympathetic nerves.
Increases heart rate and stroke volume.
Causes vasoconstriction of veins.
Causes vasoconstriction of arterioles of the abdomen and skin.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
In the blood plasma, the enzyme renin converts the plasma protein.
Causes vasoconstriction of arterioles.
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
Angiotensin II
Produced by neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in reponse to low water concentration of blood.
Released by axon terminals in the posterior pituitary gland.
Causes vasoconstriction of arterioles.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to stimulation by decreased plasma sodium, increased plasma potassium, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or angiotensin II.
Increases water reabsorption by the kidneys, increasing blood volume.
Secreted by the heart in response to the stretching of cardiace muscle fibers.
Causes vasodilation of arterioles.
Decreases water reabsorption by the kidneys, decreasing blood volume.
Inhibits the secretion of aldosterone and the activatio
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Secreted by damaged tissue cells; especially mast cells, basophils, and platelets.
Causes vasodilation of arterioles locally.
Plays a key role during the inflammatory response.
Normal pH level for blood.
7.4 pH
____ are the most abundant plasma protein.
____ is a precusor to fibrin threads that help for blood clots.
List some functions of blood:
Supplies oxygen to organs and tissues
Removes carbon dioxide
Temperature regulation
Maintain pH
Water balance
Transport nutrients/removal of waste products
Transports hormones
Immunity activities
Wound-healing activities
List the components of blood:
List the plasma proteins:
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma globulins
Measures the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells.
BUN stands for:
Blood urea nitrogen
Measurement of the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from urea. Urea is a substance secreted by the liver, and removed from the blood by the kidneys.
BUN test
Stem cells found in the bone marrow and are the precursor cells which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages.
The yellowish fluid portion of blood, represents 60% of the total blood.
___ contain a protein called hemoglobin which gives blood its red color and is the method of transport for oxygen molecules from the lungs to the body cells.
____ play an important role in producing antibodies and in cellular immunity.
Leukocytes (White blood cells)
Name the two types of leukocytes:
Granular leukocytes
Nongranular leukocytes (Agranular)
List the three granular leukocytes:
This granular leukocyte ingest and destroy bacteria through phagocytosis.
This granular leukocyte increases and becomes active in the presence of certain infections, infestations, and allergies.
This granular leukocyte secrete heparin and histamine in response to chronic inflammation and during healing from an infection.
List the two agranular leukocytes:
____ adhere to the walls of blood vessels at the site of an injury to plug a defect in the vascular wall.
Blood cells originate from stem cells in red bone marrow called:
pluripotent cells.
Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow of most bones in a process called:
Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils are formed in:
the bone marrow
____ are formed in the thymus, the lymph glands, and other lymphatic tissue.
_____ are formed in the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Thrombocytes are synthesized from larger cells called _____ in red bone marrow.
The presence of protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the:
Rh Factor
The arrest of blood that escapes from a blood vessel by either natural or artificial means.
When vascular injury occurs, the endothelial cells interact with _____ and _____ _____ to form a blood clot at the site of injury.

clotting factors
_____ causes more platelets to clump upon the first layer, resulting in an initial thrombus.
_____ is required for coagulation.
_____ is required by the liver for the formation of coagulation factor prothrombin, which, in the presence of calcium, catalyzes the formation of thrombin.
Vitamin K
_____ reacts with _____ and forms fibrin.

When blood loss is severe, iron is not absorbed rapidly enough to make up for hemoglobin loss, giving rise to a condition called:
hypochromic anemia
The lack of production of red blood cells is called:
aplastic anemia
_____ _____ is caused by the absence of intrinsic factor secreted by the stomach.
Pernicious anemia
A clonal stem cell disorder that results in the abnormal increase in the number of circulating blood cells.
A cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes).
A device used to count blood cells.
A hematological disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell).
The movement of leukocytes across the endothelial lining of blood vessels to interstitial fluid.
A glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes.
Colony stimulating factor
The cell fragments circulating in the blood that are involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary haemostasis leading to the formation of blood clots.
A glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 later on in the small intestine.
Intrinsic factor
A category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. They are also called _____ _____ because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments.
polymorphonuclear leukocytes
An important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, most notably fibrin clots.
An abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
Refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface.
The process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down.
Occurs when an object migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body.
A small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels).
The heart is enclosed within a loose sack called the _____ that protects it and keeps it from rubbing against the thoracic wall.
The hearts upper chambers are called _____ and are designed to ____ blood from the veins of the body.

The lower chambers of the heart are called _____ and are designed to pump blood _____ arteries leading _____ from the heart.


The chambers of the heart are divided into left and right portions by the _____.
The septum between the atria is called the:
interatrial septum
The septum that separates the ventricles is called:
interventricular septum
The atrium communicates with its corresponding ventricle though and opening called the:
atriventricular valve
Fibrous cords attached to the cusps on the ventricular side, and prevent the cusps of the valve from folding back into the atrium.
Chordae tendineae
The phase of contraction within the heart.
The phase of relaxation within the heart.
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
cardiac output
A negative deflection or wave.
Q wave
ventrical repolarization
A positive deflection or wave.
R wave
ventrical repolarization
A negative wave.
S wave
ventrical repolarization
A positive deflection and associated with repolarization.
U wave
Represents atrial depolarization.
P wave
Records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph.
A restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue.
When an artery is blocked by some obstruction (e.g. a blood clot or cholesterol deposit), causing necrosis (death) of the tissue supplied by that artery. It is the culmination of ischemia.
A condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood.
A state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal.
An elevated calcium level in the blood.
The presence of low serum calcium levels in the blood.
An elevated blood level of the electrolyte potassium.
A potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health.
An electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood.
An electrolyte disturbance where the sodium levels in the blood are lowered.
A device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

Blood Pressure Meter
Sounds that medical personnel listen for when they are taking blood pressure using a non-invasive procedure.
Korotkoff sounds
List the three walls of the artery:
Tunica adventitia
Tunica media
Tunica intima
The force that blood exerts against the internal walls of blood vessels.
Blood pressure
The hinderance of blood flow within the cardiovascular system due to the friction of blood against the walls of the vessels is called _____.
A condition that involves the formation of an atheroma in the intima of medium and large veins.
Consist of a soft central region composed of lipids and cellular debris covered by a tough layer of fibrous tissue.
An inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs.
Swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess lymph fluid, without an increase of the number of cells in the affected tissue.
A small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
The lymphatic system includes:
Lymph nodes
Lymph vessels
The _____ of skeletal muscles and the act of _____ aids in moving the lymph forward within the vessels.

Lymph vessels contain _____ to prevent the regurgitation of lymph.
Lymph travels back to the blood flow to become _____.
The beginning of the thoracic duct is called the:
cisterna chyli
Specialized type of lymph capillary located in the villi of the small intestine.
List the three groups of tonsils:
Pharyngeal (adenoids)
An abnormal collection of fluid within the interstitial spaces due to a pathology of the lymph system.
The thymus produces:
T cells
The first line of defense of the body is the:
mucous membranes
____ are found in the respiratory tract and aid in trapping inhaled dust, dirt, and pathogens.
The process of surround and ingesting another microbe or foreign material.
The attraction of phagocytes to the area of infection.
Antibody molecules secrete a serum protein that coats the bacterial cell to promote the attachment of phagocytes to the pathogen. This is called:
____ is a group of proteins found in the blood plasma that make up the complement system.
_____ aids in the lysis of bacteria thought the process called _____ _____ in a specific sequence called the complementary pathway.

complement cascade
_____ is responsible for the temperature of the body.
A type of protein that is produced during an infection. It enters the host's cells and inhibits the synthesis of protein that viruses need for multiplying.
____ antibodies are located in the lymph and plasma.

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