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worksheet: purple (the 40s and 50s)


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17th parallel
vietnam divided
Russians launched it. children in america had to learn more math and science in school. "baby moon" shattered american self confidence. The soviets had long been trying to convince the uncommitted nations that the shortcut to superior industrial production lay through communism, and the sputniks gave credence to their claim. military implications of these human-made satellites proved sobering.
interstate highway system
In some ways Eisenhower even did the New Deal one better. In a public works project that dwarfed anything the New Dealers had ever dreamed of, Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways. laying down these modern, mutilane roads created countless construction jobs and speeded the suburbanization of america. the highway act offered juicy benefits to the trucking, automobile, oil, and travel induestries, while at the same time robbing the railroads, especially passenger trains, of business. the act also exacerbated problems of air quality and energy consumption, and had especially disastrous consequences for cities, whose once-vibrant downtowns withered away while shopping malls flourished in the far-flung suburbs.
Korean War: limited
How did korea become communistic? during ww1, japan occupied korea. the soviet kicked the japs out and then they stayed. north korea attacked the south and turned it toward communism. The UN decided to send troops to Korea. this could be called a "UN war." the US sent the most troops, however. the UN agreed to because the soviet was absent from that meeting. we were very successful until up to the Yalu River which boarders on china. the chinese had 300000 soldiers and attacked the american soldiers (who retreated). president eisenhower (got into office toward end of korean war) threatened the koreans with the atomic bomb, since they had lost about 50,000 soldiers already. At Pan Mun Jon a peace treaty was signed, and there was status quo (it's the same). the 38th parallel continued to exist (line that divided N. and S. Korea). our standpoint in this war was that we managed to keep South korea from falling to communism. our main reason for going to korea was the domino effect. we believed that if korea fell, the rest would also fall, and the US would be the last domino to fall to communism. the domino effect was our foreign policy. This was a "limited" war because we did not use all of our weapons (atomic bombs). the vietnam and korean wars were referred to as police actions because war was not declared in the US congress.
j. mccarthy
led the communist search from DC "red hunt"
dixiecrats '48 election
republicans- dewey. democrats- no eisenhower, but truman. southern democrats (13 states) dixiecrats nominated governor j. strom thurmond on a states rights party ticket. progressive- henry wallace (former new dealers, pacificts, well meaning liberals, and communist-fronters). truman lashed out at the taft-hartley "slave labor" law and the "do-nothing" republican congress. his program- civil rights, labor benefits, and health insurance. Truman won, and democrats took ahold of congress as well. (thanks to farmers, workers, and blacks). "bold new program" his point 4.
"South East Asia Treaty Organization" This was the US making treaties with other countries in order to "try to win hearts and mind." popularity contest between the Soviet and the US: the two superpowers. -our fight in Vietnam. the spanish american war was the first major departure in americas isolationist foreign policy. the aftermath of ww1: we didn't want to get involved so we didn't join the league of nations.
beat generation
50s.The Beat Generation is a term used to describe both a group of American writers who came to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired (later sometimes called "beatniks"). The members of the Beat Generation quickly developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity.
krushchev, '55 geneva summit
Khrushchev rudely rejected Ike's heartfelt proposals for peace at the Geneva summit conference in 1955. When Ike called for "open skies" over both the US and the Soviet Union to prevent either side from miscalculating the other's military intentions, Khrushchev replied, "this is a very transparent espionage could hardly expect us to take this seriously."
cold war
unaccustomed to their great-power roles, the soviet and the US provoked ech other into a tense 40-year standoff. not a war/ not a peace.
rosa parks
i will not sit in the back of the bus.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 - April 4, 1968) was one of the pivotal leaders of the American civil rights movement. King was a Baptist minister, one of the few leadership roles available to black men at the time. He became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957), serving as its first president. His efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. Here he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means.
point four
The united states gave technical assistance (industrial and agricultural) to nations around the world in order to help keep them strong against communism. economic aid was provided. poor countries were the ones that fell to communism.
dewey/truman '48
dewey-republicans; truman-democrats (farmers, workers, blacks); "bold new program" point 4- lend us money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help themselves. lend millions to keep underprivileged people from communism.
UN: Security Council, General Assembly
The United Nations replaced the League of Nations. When Japan attacked Manchuria, when Germany attacked Austria, and when Italy attacked Ethiopia the League was effortless. The UN is a workable peace keeping org. The security council has 15 members (10 of which are rotating). The five permanent ones are the US, France, Britain, Russia, and China.
GI bill of rights
federal government's participation in education.The GI Bill, officially known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, was designed to provide greater opportunities to returning war veterans of World War II. The bill, signed by President Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, provided federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life in the areas of hospitalization, purchase of homes and businesses, and especially, education. This act provided tuition, subsistence, books and supplies, equipment, and counseling services for veterans to continue their education in school or college. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act included the following: Veterans were free to attend the educational institution of their choice, Federal Government would subsidize tuition, fees, books, and educational materials for veterans and contribute to living expenses incurred while attending college or other approved institutions, Colleges were free to admit those veterans who met their admissions requirements.
Satellite countries
the cold war started because the the soviet's occupation and refusal to leave eastern/central european countries after the war. These countries were called "satellite" countries because they seem to "orbit" around Russia. They all became communistic. "Red Hot Chilli Peppers Burn" Romania, Hungaria, Czechosolvakia, Poland, and Bulgaria. the "iron curtain" countries.
little rock (central high)
In 1957 the governor of arkansas, orval faubus, mobilized the national guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in little rock's central high school. confronted with a direct challenge to federal authority, eisenhower sent troops to escort the children to their classes.
alliance for progress
The Alliance for Progress initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between North and South America. The aid was intended to counter the perceived emerging communist threat from Cuba to U.S. interests and dominance in the region.....(Bailey)- In 1961, kennedy extended the hand of friendship with the alliance for progress, hailed as a marshall plan for latin america. a primary goal was to help the good neighbors close the gap between the callous rich and the wretched poor, and thus quiet communist agitation. but results were disappointing; there was little alliance and even less progress.
berlin airlift
soviet attempted to starve allies out of berlin by cutting off rail and highway access to city. in may 1949 after america had flown in many supplies for about a year the blockade was lifted.
the Big 3 met in Yalta to discuss war's end. -smash german lines. -shackle beaten Axis enemy
To Secure These Rights
To Secure These Rights played a great role in United States history. This book exceeded civil rights activists� highest expectations. During a time when men were coming back from World War two. An African American man could go and die for his country but he still had to ride in the back of the bus, he still had to face racism everywhere he went. To Secure These Rights opened the eyes of many people and helped president Truman get elected and fight for civil rights.
berlin division
berlin divided just like germany. west berlin free. east berlin- communism.
NATO/warsaw pact
US joined European pact. North atlantic treaty organization. America part. strengthened policy of containing Soviet and providing framework for reintegration of germany into european family. attack on one, attack on all. this was a departure from america convention (diplomatic). boost for european unification. militarization for cold war.
non-violent resistence. British influence on India. Martin luther king picked up on this in the US. passive resistence --> thoreau.
nasser, suez crisis
President Nasser of Egypt was seeking funds to build an immense dam on the upper Nile for urgently needed irrigation and power. american and britain tentatively offered financial aid, but when nasser began to flirt openly with the communist camp, secretary of state Dulles dramatically withdrew the dam offer. Nasser promptly regained face by nationalizing the suez canal, owned chiefly by british and french stockholders. Nassers actions placed a razors edge at the jugular vein of western europes oil supply. The suez crisis also marked the last time in history that the US could brandish its "oil weapon."
Socialism & Communism
Socialism- economic term (opposite=capitalism); Communism (founder Karl Marx)- political term (opposite=democracy); Lenin picks up on this, Stalin refines it. this idea is against what the US believes it and so there was a fear/paranoia in the post-war years.
U2 incident
On the eve of the "summit conference" in paris, an American U2 spy plane was shot down deep in the heart of Russia. Khrushchev stormed into paris filling the air with invective, and the conference collapsed before it could get off the ground.
st. lawrence seaway
he St. Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, as far as Lake Superior. Legally it extends from Montreal to Lake Erie, including the Welland Canal and the Great Lakes Waterway. The seaway is named after the Saint Lawrence River, which it follows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. To create a navigable channel through the Long Sault rapids and to allow hydroelectric stations to be established immediately upriver from Cornwall, Ontario and Massena, New York, an artificial lake had to be created. Called Lake St. Lawrence, it required the flooding on July 1, 1958 of ten villages in Ontario, now collectively known as "The Lost Villages". There was also inundation on the New York side, but no communities were affected. The seaway's opening is often credited with making the Erie Canal obsolete, thus setting off the severe economic decline of several cities in upstate New York.
bay of pigs
The bay is the site of the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, an unsuccessful April 1961 United States CIA-backed invasion by 1,400 Cuban exiles and a number of American citizens formed into Brigade 2506 — whom many people believe was directed by President John F. Kennedy — in an attempt to overthrow the government of President Fidel Castro.The attacks first began with bombings of air-fields on Saturday April 15, 1961[2] and by April 19th at 2:30pm the brigade radioed they had nothing left to fight with. The following day, April 20, 1961, Fidel Castro declared that the revolution had been victorious.
preemptive strike
A preemptive strike commonly refers to an attack made upon an enemy as a precautionary response to an anticipated or impending war, such as in a preemptive war.
intercontinental ballistic missiles.
iron curtain
divided west germany (independent) and east germany (satellite state bound to soviet. shut off from western world).
Department of Defense created
The department of defense was formerly known as the department of war. department of -> the president's cabinet. this was created by the National Securities Act in 1948. The CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) was created.
political system based on the writings of karl marx. in china, it was based on the writings of Mao Zedong
brown v. board of education
rown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954),[1] was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This victory paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement.[2]
taft-hartley act
outlawed the "closed" (all union) shop. made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath. this obstacle slowed growth of organized labor in years after WW2
Israel created '48
Israel lies in the middle east, where there are the most Jewish people. there were the two kinds of Jews: the old kind, who had been there since way before, and the new kind. these were modern european jews who flew from the holocaust to their "native land." When israel declared itself a country, many palestinians left, thinking the jews would be prosecuted by surrounding countries. the united states was the first to formally recognize Israel as a country.
Thanks to the Sputniks, rocket fever swept the nation. eisenhower established teh national aeonautics and space administration and directed billions of dollars to missile development. In february the US managed to put into orbit a grapefruit sized satellite, and by the end of the decade several satellites had been launched. the US had successfully tested its own ICBMs.
38th parallel
divided north and south korea.
george kennan
formulated the "containment doctrine" which stated that Russia was relentlessly expansionary. the soviet union was cautious. the flow of the soviet power could be stemmed by firm and vigilant containment.
alger hiss case
In 1948 committee member richard m Nixon led the chase after alger hiss, a prominent ex-New Dealer and a distinguished member of the "eastern establishment." accused of being a communist agent in the 1930s, hiss demanded the right to defend himself. His dramatically met his chief accuser before the Un-American Activities Committee in august but was convicted of perjury.
Voice of America, Radio free Europe
throughout the war there were radio broadcasts to the iron curtain countries to show people behind the iron curtain what a bad life they lead. there were propogandistic radio stations.
massive retaliation
mutual destruction.Massive retaliation was a term coined by Eisenhower's Secretary of State John Foster Dulles in a speech on January 12, 1954. The doctrine of massive retaliation was based on the West's increasing fear at the perceived imbalance of power in conventional forces, and the corresponding inability to defend itself or prevail in conventional conflicts. By relying on a large nuclear arsenal for deterrence, President Eisenhower believed that conventional forces could be reduced while still maintaining military prestige and power and the capability to defend the western bloc.
Factories retooled. After war we had to reconvert to consumer goods again. There was a 5 year interruption in normal lifestyles. This will lead to inflationary trend.
eisenhower/stevenson '52,56
eisenhower beat him both times.
Germany and Berlin divided after war.
After the war, Germany was separated into 4 parts: US, USSR, France, and Br. each had their share. The part that the us, fr. and br. had was known as western "independent" germany, whereas the part that the ussr had ahold of was known as Eastern Germany. Berlin lies in eastern german, and it itself was divided the same way among the same countries. so there was western berlin (a little independent "island" in the midst of a communistic, unfriendly part of germany) and eastern berlin. The soviets decided to make a blockade and cut off all roads to Western berlin. Since the people there had no means of getting the supplies they needed, the US and Britain, for one year, dropped supplies through the air for those people.
the rosenburgs
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg were convicted and sentenced to death for stealing american atomic bomb plans and selling them to soviet. they were the only people in history to be sentenced to death for espionage.
cuban missile crisis
In october 1962 the aerial photographs of american spy planes revealed tha the soviets were secretly and speedily installing nuclear-tipped missiles in cuba. the soviets evidently intended to use these weapons to shield castro and to blackmail the US into backing down in berlin and other trouble spots. Kennedy and Khrushchev now began a nerve-racking game of "nuclear chicken." the president flatly rejected air force proposals for a "surgical" bombing strike against the missile-launching sites. on october 22, 1962 he ordered a naval "quarantine" of cuba and demanded immediate removal of the threatening weaponry. he also stated that any attack from cuba on the US would be considered an attack from the Soviet and wold trigger nuclear retaliation against the russian heartland. on october 28, Khrushchev agreed to a partially face-saving compromise by which he would pull the missiles out of Cuba. the US would then end of the quarantine and not attack cuba. the US also quietly signaled that it would remove from turkey some of its own missiles targeted on the Soviet Union.
white flight
(northeast and midwest) whites moving out of cities to suburbs (green belts). cities were left poverty stricken.
consumer spending
marshall plan
marshall invited europeans to get together and work out joint plan for economic recovery. US would provide substancial finanical assistance. aid offered to soviet who refused. US helped- europe flourished. plan led to creation of european community (EC)
The House of Reps in 1938 had established the committee on Un-American Activites (known as HUAC) to investigate "subversion."
d. macarthur
general in japan. took control of democratization of japan. japs cooperated. macarthur-dictated constitution- renounced militarism and introduced western-style democracy. was fired by president when he wanted to attack china at yalu river after korea.
Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy and (in contemporary settings) in military strategy involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons. Brinkmanship became very important in United States foreign policy during Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency.[citation needed] The American public sought to win the Cold War and also wanted lower taxes. Brinkmanship was a cheap alternative to fighting actual wars.
collective security
cold war phrase: link arms with other countries to remain strong against communism.
Fall of china- Mao and Chiang
there was a revolution in china in 1949. Truman was our president at the time. there was the nationalist side of china: led by Chiang (who was supported by US) and there was the communistic side: led by Mao. Chiang fell.
castro's revolution
Dr. Fidel Castro engineered a revolution early in 1959, denounced yankee imperialists, and began to expropriate valuable american properties in pursuing a land-distribution program. Washington released cuba from "imperialistic slavery" by cutting off the heavy US imports of cuban sugar. Castro confiscated yankee property and made his left-wing dictatorship an economic and military satellite of moscow. many anti-castro cubans migrated to florida. washington broke diplomatic relations with cuba in early 1961. president eisenhower proposed a long-deferred "marshall plan" for latin america.
sit ins
Sit-ins were first widely employed by Mahatma Gandhi in Indian independence movement and were later expanded on by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and others during the American Civil Rights Movement. In the 1960s, students used this method of protest during the student movements, such as the protests in Germany. Sit-ins were an integral part of the non-violent strategy of civil disobedience that ultimately ended racial segregation in the United States. The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) conducted sit-ins as early as the 1940s. Ernest Calloway refers to Bernice Fisher as "godmother of the restaurant 'sit-in' technique."[1] Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) labor delegates had a brief, spontaneous lunch counter sit-in in 1947 during their Columbus, Ohio convention.
smith act
In 1949 eleven communists were brought before a new york jury for violating the Smith Act of 1940, the first peacetime antisedition law since 1798. Convicted of advocating the overthrow of the american government by force, the defendants were sent to prison. the supreme court upheld their convictions in Dennis v. United States (1951).
The trend of suburbanization. When workers left the big cities and rushed to the suburbs (green belts.) The more the cities grew, the less desirable it was to live in them. Families wanted a peaceful existence. The whites left the inner cities (white flight). This was possible because of the transportation (US had most oil in the world).
benjamin spock
hewas an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do." Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals, whereas the previous conventional wisdom had been that child rearing should focus on building discipline, and that, e.g., babies should not be "spoiled" by picking them up when they cried.
The Organization of American States (OAS, or, as it is known in the three other official languages, OEA) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas.
Dien Bien Phu
The decade we were most involved in vietnam was the '60s. we did have limited involvment in the '50s. our involvment began after the battle between the french and the vietnamese. the communists in north of vietnam and the french. the french were there way before us (French Indochina). the french and US were defeated because of guerilla warfare. these tactics bothered us. The french defeat marks the beginning of american involvment in Vietnam.
truman doctrine
declared that it must by the policy of the US to aid any country resisting communistic aggression.
Truman MacArthur controversy
Truman spoke to MacArthur (5 star general: only truman himself-commander in chief- had greater rank than him)) in japan and signaled for more troops to be sent for an attack on china after the retreat at the yalu river. macarthur which to make an offensive. Truman said no. MacArthur said Yes. Truman made Macarthur come back home.
r. nixon
eisenhower's vice president.
cheaply made homes for returning GIs
peace coexistence
Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. This was in contrast to theories, such as those implied by some interpretations of antagonistic contradiction, that communism and capitalism could never exist in peace. However it was interpreted differently by the USSR and the People's Republic of China, the two dominant states in the Communist world.
fair deal
truman 1949. improved housing, full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs and an extension of social security. Age old insurance - social security act of 1950
Atomic Energy Commission
Control atomic energy, control spread of nuclear weapons. Russia refused to let the US inpect.
eisenhower's "dynamic conservatism"
while entering the white house in 1953, Eisenhower pledged his administration to the philosophy of "dynamic conservatism." In all those things which deal with people, be liberal, be human. -he had advised. But when it came to people's money, or their economy, or their form of government, be conservative. This balanced course harmonized with the depression dautned and war weary mood of the times. some critics called eisenhower's presidency a case of "the bland leading the bland." Eisenhower tried to balance the federal budget and guard the republic from "creeping socialism." Eisenhower supported the transfer of control over offshore oil fields from the federal government to the states.
soviet visitation '59
Khrushchev was eager to meet with Eisenhower and pave the way for a "summit conference" with western leaders. The president invited him to America in 1959. In new york, Khrushchev appeared before the UN General Assembly and dramatically resurrected the ancient Soviet proposal of complete disarmament. At a meeting at camp david, khrushchev said that his ultimatum for the evacuation of berlin would be extended indefinitely. The world gave premature thanks for "the spirit of camp david."
hungarian revolt '56
in 1957, the hungarians rose up against their soviet masters and appealed in vain to the US for aid, while moscow reasserted its domination with force. hungarians accused US for "welshing." but americas weapon was too heavy for such a relatively minor crisis. The rigid futility of the "massive retaliation" doctrine was thus starkly exposed.
john foster dulles
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 - May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954. (incoming secretary of state) promised to not merely stem the red tide but to "roll back" its gains and "liberate captive people".
Hydrogen bomb
exploded in the '50s and was 1000 times more powerful than what was dropped on hiroshima. this was dropped on "bikini island" in the pacific. bye bye island.
eisenhower doctrine
The US presdient and congress proclaimed the eisenhower doctrine in 1957, pledging US military and economic aid to middle eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. The real threat to US interests in the middle east was not communism but nationalism, as Nasser's wild popularity among the masses of all Arab countries demonstrated.

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