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when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO drops & the water cannot support life
Most endangered species
have a small range, require large territory or live on an island
Effects of El Nino
upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters, SW US has increased rainfall, less Atlantic Hurricanes
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected
LI Exotic Species
gypsy moth, Asian long horned beetle
Nuclear Fusion
2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
Incineration advantages
volume of waste reduced by 90% & waste heat can be used
threshold dose
the maximum dose that has no measurable effect
Parts of the hydrologic cycle
evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
Effects of global warming
rising sealevel (thermal expansion), extreme weather, droughts, (famine), extinctions
Aerobic respiration
oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
Industrial stage
decline in birth rate, population growth slows
Minamata Disease
mental impairments caused by mercury
Primary succession/Secondary succession
development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life (lava) / life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest, fire)
photosynthetic life
During an El Nino year/During a Non El Nino year
trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to SA / Easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America
Salinization of soil
in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
Electricity is generated by
using steam (from water boiled by fossil fuels or nuclear) or falling water to turn generator
Doubling time
rule of 70 -> 70 divided by the percent growth rate
World Population/US Population
6.5 billion / 300 million
1st & 2nd most populated countries
China & India
Organic fertilizer
slow acting & long lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
allows the use of resources in a responsible manner / setting aside areas & protecting them from human activities
Endangered Species
Northern spotted owl (loss of old growth forest), Piping Plover (nesting areas threatened by development)
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur
at plate boundaries (divergent, spreading, mid-oceanic ridges) (convergent, trenches) (transform, sliding, San Andreas)
ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
Percent water on earth by type
97.5% seawater, 2.5 % freshwater
Primary air pollutants
produced by humans and nature (CO, CO2, SO2, NO, hydrocarbons, particulates)
radioactive gas, formed from the decay of Uranium, causes lung cancer.
Indicator species
species that serve as early warning that an ecosystem is being damaged ex trout
plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)
Replacement level fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
living/nonliving components of an ecosystem
using waste heat to make electricity
Major insecticide groups and examples
(chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT) (organophosphates, malathion) (carbamates, aldicarb)
R strategist/K strategist
reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring / reproduce late, few, cared for offspring
biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
Energy flow in food webs
only 10% of the usable energy is transferred because usable energy lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey
inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins
symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
Photochemical Smog
formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NO, VOC, O)
Alternative energy sources
wind, solar, waves, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells
Most important thing affecting population growth
low status of women
any water bearing layer in the ground
Cons of Petroleum
reserves depleted soon, pollution during drilling, transport and refining, burning makes CO2
In natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by:
predators, diseases, parasites
Acid deposition
caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
Salt water intrusion
near the coast, overpumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
sources of mercury
buring coal, Compact Flourescent bulbs
(Formation: secondary pollutant, NO2 + UV = NO + O O+ O2 = O3, with VOC's) (Effects: respiratory irratant, plant damage) (reduction: reduce NO emissions & VOC's)
Major source of sulfur
buring coal
bacteria convert ammonia back into N
Sulfur oxides
(source: coal buring) (effects: acid deposition, respiratory irritation, damages plants) (Equation for acid formation: SO2 = O2 = SO3 + H2O = H2SO4) (reduction: scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel)
Mutagen, teratogen, carcinogen
causes hereditary changes, fetus deformities, cancer
Garret Hardin & The Tragedy of the Commons
Freedom to breed is bringing ruin to all. Global commons such as atmosphere & oceans are used by all and owned by none
Effects of ozone depletion
increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level
approximately 10 half-lives
True cost/ External costs
harmful environmental side effects that are not reflected in a products price
Negative feedback
when changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition (EX: warmer earth - more ocean evaporation- more status clouds-less sunlight reaches the ground-therefore cooler Earth
Cone of depression
lowering of the water table around a pumping well
large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
Preindustrial stage
birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt, clay
Best solution to Energy shortage
conservation and increase efficiency
Natural pest control
better agriculture practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
Natural selection
organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation
Sanitary landfill problems and solutions
(leachate, liner with collection system) (methane gas, collect gas and burn) (volume of garbage, compact & reduce)
Pros of Petroleum
cheap, easily transported, high quality energy
El Nino Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific
Municipal solid waste is mostly
paper and most is landfilled
Ways to conserve water
(agriculture, drip/tirickle irrigation) (industry, recycling) (home, use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures)
(good>disinfection of water)( bad>forms trihalomethanes)
Transitional stage
death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
Keystone species
species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others ex: sea otter
rapid algal growth caused by an excess of N & P
Particulate matter (source, effect, reduction)
(burning fossil fuels & diesel exhaust) (reduces visibility & respitory irritation) (filtering, electrostatic preciptators, alternative energy)
Love Canal, NY
chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth defects and cancer
Steps in coal formation
peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
Best way to solve waste problem
reduce amount of waste at the source
said human population cannot continue to increase..consequences will be war, famine & disease
Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N because
it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate rocks
Two most serious nuclear accidents
Chernobyl, Ukraine; Three Mile Island, PA
Nuclear Fission
nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Pesticide pros
saves lives from insect transmitted diseases, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers
Largest reservoirs of C
carbonate rocks first, oceans second
Postindustrial stage
low birth & death rates
Petroleum forms from
microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by heat and pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons
relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Age structure diagrams
(broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negative growth)(uniform shape, zero growth)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
.: when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
Point vs. Non Point sources
point, from specific location such as a pipe// Nonpoint, from over an area such as runoff
Carbon oxides
(source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion) (Effects: CO binds to heoglobin reducing bloods ability to cary O, CO2 contributes to global warming)
Half life
the time it takes for ½ the mass of a radioisotope to decay
Carrying capacity
the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
Natural radioactive decay
unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta particles
Surface mining
cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
Major parts of a nuclear reactor
core, control rods, steam generator, turbine, containment building
removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
Incineration disadvantages
toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride --dioxin), scrubbers & electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal (contains heavy metals)
Fecal coliform/Enterococcus
indicator of sewage contamination
Nitrogen Oxides
(source: auto exhaust) (effects: acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog & ozone) (Equation for acid formation: NO + O2 = NO2 + H2O = HNO3) (Reduction: catalytic converter)
High Quality Energy
organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (fossil fuel & nuclear)
Ionizing radiation
enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer (gamma-Xrays-UV)
Positive feedback
when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (EX: warmer Earth - snow melts - less sunlight is reflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
Pesticide cons
genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification
Nitrogen fixing
because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria (rhizobium)
Low Quality Energy
disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems by
runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer, discharge of sewage
Greenhouse gases
H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, CFC's Effect; they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing the earth to warm
Ozone depletion caused by
CFC"s, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone
Ways to decrease birth rate
family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties
deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)

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