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chapter one apush

Terms

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Coureurs de bois
Adventurous french fur traders and trappers. They created an extensive trade that boosted the French colonial economy. Fur trade helped then open the way for agricultural estates, and trade and military centers.
Francisco Pizarro
conquered the Incas in Peru and opened the way for other advanced into South America. Without him or any of the other Spaniards, settlers wouldn't be able to come into America.
Sir Walter Raleigh/ Roanoke
Sir Walter Raleigh, Gilbert's half-brother, secured his own six-year grant from Queen Elizabeth to explore North America. He found Virginia, which he named after the queen, who was known as the "Virgin Queen". Roanoke was an island that was attempted to be colonized but two times it failed. The first time Raleigh sent a group of men to Roanoke that destroyed an Indian village. Sir Francis Drake unexpectedly came to Roanoke and all of the colonist boarded his ships and left. They didn't want to live on the island anymore. Three years later, Raleigh tried again to colonize the island by sending 91 men, 17 women, and 9 children. John White, the commander of the expedition went back to England to search for more supplies and couldn't come back for another 3 years because of a war with Spain. When he came back, the island was deserted with no trace of what happened to the settlers. Roanoke marked the end of Sir Walter Raleigh's involvement in English colonization. also known as the lost colony
Puritan
Since there had been so many other reformations in the church earlier, they sought out to purify the church. The Puritans were a group that wanted to simplify Anglican forms of worship and reform the leadership of the church. They were frustrated that authorities didn't want to respond to their demands. James I resorted to illegal and arbitrary taxation by favoring the English Catholics.
St. Augustine
established as the Spaniards first permanent settlement. It was also the first European settlement in N. America. It was a small military outpost. It was located in Florida.
The English Reformation/The Church of England
King Henry VIII was angry that the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce his Spanish wife and broke England's ties with the Catholic Church. He established himself as head of the Christian faith in England. Queen Mary restored England's allegiance to Rome but her half sister, Elizabeth I later severed the nation's connection to the Catholic Church. But some people from the Church of England (anglicans) still wanted more reforms that would "purify" the church. They were called the Puritans.
Cahokia
trading center located near present-day St. Louis. It had a population of 40,000 in a.d. 1200. Many Native Americans traded at this area where the land was rich.
New Amsterdam
the Dutch created the Dutch West India Company with trading posts on the Hudson, Delaware, and Connecticut Rivers. It became known as the colony of New Netherland, with its principal town, New Amsterdam, that was on Manhattan Island.
Prince Henry the Navigator
devoted his life to exploration. He made the Portuguese be the largest power in the 15th century. He promoted exploration, which was later used by other explorers to go around the southern tip of Africa to India
The Spanish Armada
In 1588, the Spanish Armada was sent over to attack England. They were defeated, even though they were larger. This ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic. England became more interesting in colonizing the New World once they saw that they could defeat the Spanish.
Ferdinand Magellan
A Portuguese in Spanish employ. Found the straight that now bears his name at the southern end of South America. He was the first to ever circumnavigate the globe
The Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther
Martin Luther challenged some of the practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. He was excommunicated in 1520 by the pope but he had many followers. This caused the Protestant Reformation, which was another reason for colonization because people wanted to live somewhere where they wouldn't be persecuted for their religion.
Hernando Cortes, conquistadores and Tenochtitlan
Cortes was an unsuccessful Spanish government official who decided to assault the Aztecs. Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, was exposed to small pox by Cortes and his men and many died because they weren't immune to it. Conquistadores were the conquerors. Cortes was established as one of the most brutal of the conquerors. The conquistadores cleared the way for the first Spanish settlers in the Americas.
Separatists
the most radical Puritans. (pilgrims) The English law required all subjects to attend regular Anglican services, but the Separatists were determined to worship in their own independent congregations.
John Calvin
rejected the Catholic belief and proposed the idea that each person's destiny was determined before birth and that you could not change it. He had many followers that led virtuous, productive lives. The Huguenots and the Puritans were some of the groups that followed his teachings.
Queen Isabelle
Married Ferdinand of Aragon. She was Isabella of Castile before. They were both powerful regional rulers. They produced the strongest and most ambitious monarchy in Europe. Columbus asked Queen Isabella for support in his voyage to discover a faster westward way to Asia. She agreed with him in 1492. 90 men and 3 ships were given to Columbus for the journey.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in Virginia that was established in 1607. Created a connection to the New World. Efforts to create settlements had be tried for the past thirty years and Jamestown was the first that succeeded.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
In 1578 he obtained a 6-year patent granting him the exclusive right to inhabit any land that wasn't possessed by a "Christian prince". So he led an expedition to Newfoundland five years later, and a storm sunk his ship, and he was lost at sea.
Colonization of Ireland-
the English wanted to colonize Ireland, by creating separation from the native populations. They tried to build a separate society of their own, peopled with emigrants from England. Harsh tactics were used against Irish and then on Native Americans
Quebec
the French settled at Quebec and forged close ties with the natives. Their colony's population grew very slowly but they had an influence in the New World because they had a relationship with the Native Americans.
Henry Hudson
He was an English explored that was in the employ of the Dutch. His explorations led to a Dutch claim on the territory which is now New York State.

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