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The Real Chapter 19-22


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aphotic zone
the ocean layer that receives no light
a species with a broad niche that can tolerate a wide range of conditions and can use a variety of resources
secondary succession
the sequential replacement of populations in a disrupted habitat
a state of decreased metabolism
a consumer that eats primary producers
a form of symbiosis in which both organsims benefit from living together
all the populations in one area
an individual that is captured, killed, and consumed by another individual
an aquatic biome found where freshwater streams and rivers flow into the sea; where the tides meet a river current
logistic model
population growth building on the exponential model but accounts for the influence of limiting factors
fundamental niche
the full range of conditions that a species can tolerate and resources it can use
developed countries
generally industrialized nations with low birth rates, high rates of education and health care.
an ecological relationship in which one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed
an organism that does not regulate its internal environment
exponential growth
a model of population growth in which the birth and death rates are constant
an organism that obtains its nutrition at the expense of another
the predictable, sequential replacement of populations in an ecosystem
birth rate
the ratio between the number of individuals born and total individuals in a specified population and time.
biotic factors
a living component of an ecosystem
oceanic zone
one of two subareas of the pelagic zone
benthic zone
the ocean bottom
all the biotic and abiotic components of an environment
the movement of individuals into a population
hunter-gatherer lifestyle
a nomadic way of life in which food is found by hunting animals and gathering uncultivated plants, fruits, and shellfish
photic zone
the layer of the ocean that receives light
mating with relatives
exponential model
describes a population that increases rapidly after only a few generations
the area on and around Earth where life exists
a species with a narrow niche that can tolerate a narrow range of conditions and can use only a few specific resources
the movement of individuals out of a population
logistic growth
a model of population growth in which birth and death rates vary with population size and are equal at the carryng capacity
a defense in which one organism resembles another that is dangerous or poisonous
a parasite that lives on a host but does not enter the host's body
the process of an organism's adjustment to an abiotic factor
a strategy of moving to another, more favorable habitat
the physical area in which an organism lives
species richness
the number of different species in a community
developing countries
includes most countries in Asia and all of the countries in Central America, South America, and Africa
all the members of a species that live in the same area and make up a breeding group
death/mortality rate
the number of deaths occuring in a period of time
greenhouse effect
warming of the Earth due to the insulating effect of gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor
intertidal zone
an area along ocean shorelines that is repeatedly covered and uncovered by ocean tides
the relationship between different species living in close assoiation with one another
climax community
a stable end point after a predictable series of stages
an individual that captures, kills, and consumes another individual
competitive exclusion
the local extinction of a species due to competition
secondary compound
a poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting substance synthesized by plants as a defense mechanism
density-dependent factor
a variable related to the density of a population that affects population size
limiting factor
biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population
population density
the number of individuals in a population in a given area at a specific time
the abundant small plant and animal organisms that drift or swim weakly near the surface of a body of water
an animal that carries pollen, such as insects, birds, or bats
pioneer species
the first species to colonize a new habitat
realized niche
the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche
the spactial distribution of individuals in a population
results from a fundamental niche overlap - the use of the same limited resource by two or more species
a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the other individual benefits
character displacement
evolution of anatomical differences that reduce competition between similar species
species diversity
an index combining the number and relative abundance of different species in a community
agricultural revolution
a period of history when early humans discovered how to domesticate animals and cultivate plants for food.
life expectancy
how long, on average, an individual is expected to live
carrying capacity
the number of individuals of a species that an ecosystem is capable of supporting.
a parasite that lives inside the host's body
the energy and materials the species needs
abiotic factors
any nonliving component of an ecosystem
age structure
the distribution of individuals among different ages in a population.
resource partitioning
among similar species, a pattern of resource use in which species reduce their use of shared resources
growth rate
the amount by which a population's size changes in a given time
primary succession
the process of sequential replacement of populations in an area that has not previously supported life
the way of life of a species
neritic zone
the ocean subarea over teh continential shelf
an organism that supports a parasite
survivorship curve
the graph of a species' mortality-rate data
the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
tolerance curve
a graph of an organsim's tolerance to a range of an environmental variable
a pattern of species distribution in which larger areas contain more species than smaller areas do
an organism that uses engergy to control its internal environment
indicates resistance to change
density-independent factor
a variable that affects populations size regardless of population density

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