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Emotional Intelligence

what is it

EI ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotion to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and action
Measuring EI
ability to identify perceive emotions
ability to use emotions to facilitate thought
ability to understand emotions
ability to manage ones own emtions

dimension 1 percieving and identifying emtions requries
paying attention to an emotion

accurately decoding emotional signals in individual and objects

emotional landscape how much an emtion is portrayed

dimension 2 using emtions to facilitate thought
ability to impact cognative process by mobalziing the appropriate emtions

what emtions are arent helpfull when taking a test it helps to be only a little bit anxous

dimension 3 understanding emotion
comprehending the relationship between emotions

how they change over time

having a rich emotional vocabulary

dimension 4 managing emtions
understanding and using emotions effectively
maintain emotions (maintain a good mood)
the importance of EI in life
buisness leaders with a high EI have shown to be more effective leaders

children with higher EI have higher achedmic and socail acheivement

how do we learn emotional intelligence
modeling learning it from others


parents, siblings and relatives

emotion defined
emotions are mutli component brief specific responses to challenges or opportunities that are important to a individuals goal.

emotions are natures way of triggering useful behavioral response accompanied with a internal model embodied experienced to a given situation.

circumplex model of emtions
negative postive high arousal verses low arousal

anger vs irritiation - mild arousal vs high arousal, even though they are both negative emtions.

Shame and Guilt, negative high arousal even though they are both negative emtions

CD anti attitudinal essay
if cognitive dissonance is aversive, it should be accompanied by high arousal level

subjects were induced to write essays

free choice vs no choice condition

free choice condition changed there opinoin more

CD and sugar pill study
1/3 told them the pill would make them feel anxous
1/3 said it would make them feel caulm
1/3 control

they showed the greatest dissonance when they told the pill would make them calm and no dissonance when the pill said it would make them feel anxous.

CD and Self Affirmation
affirming ones good qualities can help reduce threats to self produced during dissonance

sceince majors who wore lab coat did not downgrade less perfered choice ie did not show dissoannce where as buisness majors did so dissoance when wearing lab coats.

what intensifies dissonance
seen as freely chosen
cannot be justified as due to strong rewards or threats
cannot be withdrawn
produces negative consequences that were foreseealbe.

emotions can malfunction when
what used to be a adaptive stress response appears not to be. snakes bitches vs outlets cars

overgeneralized neurotic tendencies


adaptive in the sence it allows you to disengage from a futile task no going anywhere.

mental disorders the big picture
15% of worlds burden of illness is mental
more than half are not treated


people see condition not person
potrayal of media no portrayal of depression anxiety lots of MPD

Somatic Marker hypothesis
in which emotional process can guide Behavior.

Iowa cared game study

peoples feelings that precede their concous awareness or reasoning
subjects eventualy learn which is the winnin deck without knowing what is giong on

people with lesion to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs ability to produce gut feeling and they suck at this game

ventromedial prefrontal cortex
lesions cause hyper rationality inability to commit to decisions.
Embodied Cognition
studies show that our body experinces affect oru thinking

Nodding vs shaking head

if you are nodding you agree with the message more and if you are shaking you degree with the message more

arm flex-ion vs arm extension in relation to liking novel stimuli

Emotions and Moral judgment
hadit study

control - nothing
exposure with smell of fart
mid stink
very stink

emotion perspective, smell activates feeling of disgust

those with high stink showed more harsh moral judgment

moral dumbfounding
the fact that when you ask people the scenarios abotu it they say it is wrong but they have no acutal reason they say that have th efeelign that ti is wrong, but dont know why.
basic emotional recognition
happy, sad, angry, fearful possibly disgusted and surprised.

80-90 percent accuracy in all cultures even the isolated fore of new guinea.

oj simpson trail scorn

real smile vs fake smile

if you real smile eye muscles open and they look they they are smiling.

cultural importance of emtion
happiness, important in N. America the pressure to be happy if you are not

happiness not important in Korea, there has to be a reason for it.

display rules
when and how to express emtion
matsumoto and ekman
japan in the presence of authority figure no facial expression neutral.

when showed alone they were disgusted

America different

they showed disgust alone and with the experimenter in front of them.

high context culture
communication indirect the tone is often as or more important than the explicit meaning

in stroop task

they had a hard time ignoring tone and solely paying attention to meaning

low context culture
explicit pay attention to the meaning but ignore the tone

emotional stroop task

had a hard time paying attention to the tone ignoring the meaning.

Culture-specific emotions:
Mamihlapinatapei: native American (southern chile) –this situation– teenagers – boy meets girl, boy likes girl, girl likes boy, both are embarrassed at making the first move even though know that they like each other
Amae: Japan – relationship setting between romantic partner, or child parent situation, - experienced when a child becomes mildly abusive with the parent and wants something from the parent, and pester them, with knowledge that others will accept it and indulge them. (spoil)
Honor: huge culture variation – masculine emotion – if you are man in an honor culture – you feel that defending your reputation in public situation is important

The Culture of Honor: “Asshole” study
- University of Michigan – who either grew up in the North or the South,
- Subjects come into lab, fill out questionnaire, and saliva sample (to measure testosterone level (aggression) and cortisol level (stress), then hand in the lab at a long narrow hall way and then do another saliva test
- In the middle of the hall way – meet a confederate blocking the hall way with a file cabinet,
- Condition – shut the door with force, calls the subject asshole and then leave
- Control – no insult, shut the door and leave
- Honor is alive in the South, but not in the North, who are amused
o A lot of crime in the south is honor related


fake job applications been in prison for honor related beating

higher rates of interview from south than north.

health benefits of expressing emotion

result of those who write

immediately after, more distress

long term benefits 6 months

higher mood depression scores go down
better grades fewer missed days at work
improved immune function
fewer vistits to the doctor

why do we get health benefits from expressing emotion
if you are not dealing with emotion, but instead denying it it is exhausting

if you are not dealing with emtion you catastrophise it

reduces rumination

health benefits of emtional expression
expression removes the need for supression

confiding is cathartic

meaning making

more insight words become to realize understand narraive

explains some postive benefits of

praying confession
keeping a diary
close freindships social supporrt

physical proximity encourages liking friendship and romance.
police academy
students who had last name started with the letter put in teh saem officers

found that peoples freinds were the same letter of the last name.

availability: encourages interaction
anticipating: interactions produces warm feeling

mere exposure effect - repeated exposure breeds familiarity which induces liking

evoltionary reason

mere exposure evolutionary reason
faimiliary full proof way o knowing something is safe

does not need conscous refelction ie subliminal advertising.

mere exposure rats
musical diet of Mozart or Schoenberg

those who grew up lising to Mozart gravitated to the side of the cage that gave them Mozart.

similarity breeds attraction bogus stranger study
told they were to meet a stranger given a profile of a stranger, rate of liking is determined how similar the person is to you
why does similarity encourage attraction
social validation
smooth social interaction
we expect similar others to like us
similar others have qualities we like.

halo effect
beleif that atttractive people posses postive qualties that other than there hotness


mbas get 2000 dollars more salary a year based on their attractivceness

men more likely to come to the aid of attractive females.

Culture: Thinness

- Historically – idea of thinness has been morphing to more and more thinness over the decades
- Tragedy – the dramatic rise of eating disorders in North America, in young women
o Our standard of thinness has become stricter, but everyone is becoming less thin, so fewer women can meet this idea, and this idea of thinness is intensified by the media
- In many ways, body ideas for women in the west have become unusually thin
- They’ve become thinner over the past few decades, while average body weight have increased
- 19th century paintings – show that what is considered fat now, is considered beautiful
- Culturally different idea – south America, Africa – voluptuousness – not desirable to be very thin

what explains the attractiveness to thinness
in cultures with unstable food supply men prefer heavier women

when made to feel pore men preferred heavier women

universals of physical attractiveness
bilateral symmetry
average features
health complexction

features associated with reproductive health in ancestral environment are felt to be attractive.

bilateral symmetry
when a organizism developes under ideal conditions its right and left side will be symmetrical

symmetry associated with pathogens or stressors in the womb can lead to asymmetrical development

on average asymmetrical faces are viewed as less attractive.

average features
the more average a face is the more attractive it is

computer software take all faces make average faces most attractive

easy processing is associated with pleasant feeling that gets interpreted as attractive.

clear complexion
health skin is a good predictor of those would could produce surviving offspring.
does anger and arguing not predict divorce
they get feeling out but only worthwile if they both can get it out

need to communicate in realtionship or else it builds up
not predictor

4 horseman of the Apocalypse
withdrawal particuarly in men

what to do to make it better relationships that is
listen to one another
accept weakness
respect the opposite of contempt

what do to do make it better
listen to one another
accept weakness
respect the opposite of contempt.

what is the diffence between expressing anger/ complaing and contempt
anger at the situation verses contempt at the person

contemtp builds resentment lingers longer than anger

what is corrosive about contempt and critising is juding the person the person feels judged gets defensive.
when people exress anger they want acknowlegement
defensive people rationalize and explain
creates more resentment
leads to a viscous cycle

what are characteristics of health relationships
expressing feelings verses attacking partner

communicate about the small things

acknowledge the other partner

incorporate humor.

passionate love
Intense longing, ecstasy Despair
instance but brief
starts really quickly

analogy like a drug, a burning fire.

compassionate love
feelings of intimacy commitment and care.

slow but long lastering

are arranged marrages satisfying
most arranged marrages end up becoming love marrages even if they start wihtout love

studies find arranged marriages are at least as happy as love marigas.

two loves two errors haidts happiness hypothesis
mistakes being made when they enter into a marriage

- Passionate love – burst open – very intense and then start to subside
- Companionate love – starts slow and built
- Danger point 1 – when people are feeling high – climax of being in love – they decide to get married (it is like signing a paper for life when you are high on cocaine)
- Danger point 2 – when there is a dip in the relationship – very high expectation of marriage and now it is low – so want out of marriage
- Companionate love – the bigger picture
- Couples who marry very early – more likely to get divorce, then couples who were together for awhile before they get married.

cohabitation counterintuiative
those who cohabit ate then marry are more likely to divorce after marriage.

those who do not cohabitate before marrage are more likely to stay married

selectione effect

gender diofferences in mate preference
women older
men younger
sweet spot 3-6 years

on average men prefer physical attractiveness more than women

on average women prefer staus and older age more than men

largest and smallest cultural differences
chastity: varies Palestine vs Sweden

good financial prospects little cultural variation

what was the cover story milgram used
a study about learning and punishment
what are ethical issues of the milgram experiment
were did the participants actually think they were free to leave at any time

stress caused by dooling out pain.

milgram what further situations have been looked at
salience of victim
behind wall cannot see or hear him
behind wall can hear him
in same room
the teacher forces the learners hand onto the shock plate

Saleincy of researcher
sitting a few feet away
meet them adn converse through telephone
tape recorder

when another participant rejected the experiment
when another participant went on.


Yale was considered more prestigious

Bridgeport was less prestigous

parental investment theory
evolution has installed in us desires that are advantageous to our reproductive success.

men less choosy

women more choosey

women prefer resoruces

countries were there is less gender equality the gender preferences shrink but this does not eliminate the effect

Is the parental investment predictions anything more than common sense?

its not about the traits but who invests more time in the offspring

poison arrow frog emperor penguins males spend more time with baby therfor are more choosy

Ovulating women show more preference
scent of a symetrical man
correlated with

masculine facial features
self confidence boldness and competitiveness.

zimbardo video
Stanford mil gram experiment would you shock someone

Guyana 1978

Stanford prison experiment

Moral disengagement

when you put into a certain enviroment you feel a certain way dont stop continue

cutlures that go to war and their degree of de individualtion

7 process that grease the slippery slope of evil
mindlessly taking the first step
deumanization of others
de individuazation of self
blind obedience to authoirty
passive tolerance of evil through indifference
uncritical confomirty to group norms

social influence
the many ways people impact one another, including chagnes ot attitudes beelifs feelings and behvoir that result from comments actions authorits or even the mere presence of others.
changing ones own Beauvoir in response to a real or imagined pressure from others
chimps social influence and cultural learning
chimps have the capacity for culture and could pass it on to anouther wide scales

tools use to poke or lift leaver to methods to get reward, teach chimp one way or anouther

the group of chimps he goes back to will learn that way.

humans are not unique in haveing culture socail influence is behind cultural learning

a couple of candid camera moments
face the rear in the elevator

art experts view oops painting the wrong way they agree with him

striking "because of the injustice"

3 reasons why we conform
informational social influence
autocratic mimicry
normative social influence

chameleon effect
non concous mimicry of others with whom we are interacting
chameleon effect and study
10 minute interaction with subject acutaly a confederate

the particpants did not think it went will if the confederate did not mimic

automatic mimcry is behind social contagion
emotional cotagoun
contagious you can catch it from people

behvoiral contagion

the case of copy cat suicides

behvoiral contangous

copy cat suicides in polenysian iland

Mass psychogenic illness in Tennessee high school.

informational social influence
the influence of other people there results as taking their comments or actions as a source of information.

sherifts conformity experiment and the autokinetic illusions

when with other people led to a convergence of estimates.

Normative social infleunce
the influence of other people comes from your desire to avoid dissaproval

ash confomrity experiment


asch confomrity experiment

particpants and confederate go along with the group even fi we dont beleive what the group is saying we still go alonge
factors affecting conformity presssures
group size up to 4
group unanimity
culture - individualism vs collectivism - so bad it impedes sceince in japan
expertise and status
difficulty or ambiguity of the task

obedience to authority and milgram

factors that increased obdeince

physical distance of victim
escelation of voilence
absence or presence of a rebeller
depersonalization of a victim (knowing his name or non)

milgram experiments do individual differences matter
less educated somewhat more obedient
more authoritarian more obedient

but these has minute differences in comparison to the impact of the social situation.

factors to reduce conformity
encourage dissdent
multiple leadership
tolerance of diverse views
cultivate empathy for victim

how can socieites buffer against obedience
tolerance for diverse views
multiple leadership
cultivate empathy for victims
encourage dissident

facts about discrimination
physically unattractive defendants get harsher prison sentences for the same crime
black defendants get harsher prison senstances
taller men get higher status jobs ie most CEO's of fortune 500 are over 6

women get paid 80-90% that of men

negative attitude or affective response to a certain group or a individual member
neagtive behvoir to a indivudal based on their memberrship to a group
beliefs about attributes that are thought to be characteristics of particular groups
realistic Group conlfict theory
group conflcit prejudice and descrimination are likely to arise over compeitition between groups for limtied resoruces


lynchings and cotton prices

robbers cave experiment

earthquake diplomacy

problem with RGCT
even if we eliminate any possibility conflict still find prejudice
doesn't help us understand where prejudice comes from.
jigsaw classroom
studnets seperated into 6 diverse person learning groups
lesson divided into six parts
like peices of the puzzle each fo the six parts is required to see the while picture

each student learns his or her piece the teaches the rest of the group

all doing well superordinate goal.

minimal group experiments critism for RCT
estimated the number of dots

high estimation group, low estimation group

participants maximized arbitrary in group rewards and minmized outrgoup rewards.

the motivational perspective
predudice and discrimination can arise from:

social dominance oreination
system justification theory
social identity theory

ie predjudice arise from varous threats to the self, loss of control, reminders or morlaity.

social identity theory
a persons self concept and self esteem not only derive from personal identity but also from teh status and accomplishments of a group

when christrains were given negative feedback

they showed biases towards jews. in a job interview

system justification theory
similar to just world beliefs, applied to groups, groups deserve what they get and they get what they deserve.
social dominance orientation
its OK for some groups to have more of a chance in life than others
this idea is found in more dominant groups than majority groups.
cognitive biases and mispercieving a weapon
subjects exposed to black or white target

see an object very quickly either a gun or a leir

pliers becomes weapons after black face.

adult implict bias in the IAT
not subject to self presentation demands

different from explicit evaluations

prejudice in the mind
85% of Americans show bias of rich with good poor as bad
78% identify American with good, foreigners as bad
77% of Americans show bias against Jews, in favor for Christians
78% have a preference for straights, and a bias against gays

explicit inter group preference
6 year olds show the most prejudice

by the time they get to be adutls they say it doesnt matter

children start being as implictly prejduce as we are now and learn to cover it up.

under which conditions does each type of attitude predict behavior
fatigue implicit most other times explicit
evolutionary accounts
parchial altruism

pathogen avoidance

parochial altruism
altrusim towards in group

hostility towards outgroup based on constant warring timres and intergroup psychology evolved from ancestral times.

pathogen avoidance
in ancestral environments foreigners were potential sources of unfamiliar pathogens for which the immune defense is weak.
pathogen avoidance and studies
studies show that areas with high pathogen prevalence more ingroupish

increased fear of pathogens stronger immune reaction. more prejudice.


closer to the equator, more pathogens more in group behavior.


pregnancy and prejudice, body is naturally immunosuppressed during the first weeks of pregnancy. early term women are more xenophobic.

brewer and cambell study of intercultural attitudes

people were more liked if

were geographically nearer
culturally most similar to themselves

out of 30 east African societies.

intervention strategies to reduce prejudice and conflcit
superordinate goals - military
superordiante idenity- 911
equal status contact
multculturalism as a value - changes our perception of stereotypes
perceived similairty between groups - see we are all the same

why we live in groups
best relaible predictor of brain size is social group
human beings are adapted to live in social gorups

benefits from group living
protection from predation
collective hunting
cultural learning


social exclusion is painfull

virtual ball tossing game.


activation of anterior cingulate cortex.

physical pain = social pain

social facilitation
the effect of the presence of others on perfomrance

zajonic thoery
- Presence of others enhances dominant response, but inhibits less dominant response
- Explanation: arousal
o Social contact makes people feel more arousal, than if they were alone
o Sometimes the arousal is exciting (party) or intimidating (presentation

social loafing
decreased effort put forth by indiviudals working in a group

burglars working in groups more likely to get caught

pulled 18 harder when they thought they were alone than when they think there in a group

explaanation diffusion of responsiblity

less social loafing when
task is challenging and involving
individuals are identifiable
members are friends
groups or cohesive
in collectivist cultures

group think
social pressures to reach consensus in a highly cohesive group which leads to disastrous decisions.
symptoms of groupthink
illusion of invulnerability

dissent discoruaged

illusion of unamity

illusion of moarlity

unwillingess to consider alternatives

conditions that foster group think
stressfull situation

like minded members of the group
isloation form outside peeps
strong leader.

strategies to reduce group think
encourage criticism

input from outside sources

devils advocate.

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