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Yeoman farmers
Non-slave-owning landowners who operated small family farms; primarily subsistence farmers
Special Field Order No. 15
General Sherman's order to confiscate 400,000 acres of land along the Atlantic coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and divide it into parcels which would be distributed among recently-freed black families
Port Royal Experiment
During the Civil War, a program in which slaves worked on land abandoned by plantation owners (specifically the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina); ended by President Andrew Johnson
The Freedmen's Bureau
An agency established during Reconstruction which was supposed to aid former slaves through legal food and housing, oversight, education, health care, and employment contracts with private landowners
Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
Based on forgiveness--a southern state could be readmitted into the Union if ten percent of its voters swore allegiance to the Union
Wade-Davis Bill
Made admittance to the Union contingent upon a majority within each southern state claiming they never once supported the Confederacy in any form
Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction
Wanted to reunite the Union with the support of white southerners, and so offered amnesty to former Confederates who took an oath of loyalty to the Union; abandoned black southerners in the process
Black Codes
Unofficial laws put in place in the United States to limit the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks; denied them the rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or in state militias, or vote
Radical Republicans
Pushed for the abolition of slavery and supported civil rights for freedmen, including the right to vote
The Fourteenth Amendment
Declared all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens, and their rights are protected accordingly
"Carpetbaggers" and "scalawags"
Carpetbaggers--white northerners who supported the Republicans' cause; "scalawags"--white southerners who were viewed as traitors to their race and region
The Klu Klux Klan
Dedicated itself to maintaining white supremacy; a militaristic wing of the Democratic Party that warned and killed white and black men who associated with Republicans or supported black rights
The Fifteenth Amendment
Prohibits each government in the United States from denying an American citizen suffrage based on his race, color, or previous condition of servitude
The Klu Klux Klan Act
Claimed that any person deprived of rights by any party acting supposedly under the protection of the law could bring their issue to federal court; also granted the president the power to put down rebellions with the federal military; was primarily used to protect blacks against legal abuses in the south
Wade Hampton III
A Democrat who ran for governor of South Carolina; vehemently opposed Radical Republican Reconstruction policies; was declared the victor of the gubernatorial election by the South Carolina Supreme Court, a victory which apparently marked the end of Reconstruction in the south
Red Shirts
White paramilitary groups that worked actively and openly; wanted to restore Democrats to power by suppressing Republicans; sought to repress civil rights and the possibility of black suffrage
The Hamburg Massacre
A racially-motivated incident in South Carolina in which seven men died; indirectly led to nearly a century of black disenfranchisement
Samuel Tilden
The Democratic candidate for presidency in 1876 who won the popular vote but lost the election
Rutherford B. Hayes
The Republican candidate for the election of 1876 who had a good military record in the Civil War and a good record in public office; promised the South that Republican rule would not be maintained through federal military intervention
The Compromise of 1877
Hayes's promise that he would not use the federal military to maintain Republican rule in the south
The James brothers
Confederate guerillas, train robbers, and murderers who became heroes of the Wild West after their deaths despite having committed numerous atrocities against Union soldiers
Public assistance to railroads
The federal government loaned almost $65 million to the rail lines along with millions of acres of land grants; the state also provided loans, tax reductions, and the issuing of bonds
Transcontinental railroads
Union Pacific/Central Pacific, Northern Pacific, and Southern Pacific
"Robber barons"
A term applied to viciously competitive entrepreneurs during the railroad construction period
Horatio Alger stories
Wrote novels for youth that often described "rags to riches" tales; his works had a large impact on literature during the Gilded Age
John D. Rockefeller
The founder of Standard Oil who symbolized monopoly power and economic concentration; sought to dominate his business through rebates, other secret payments from railroads, and price-cutting; was one of the first visible achievers of "horizontal integration" in industry
Trusts and Standard Oil
Under state law, Standard Oil could not legally own stock in other oil companies or conduct its business in other states; as a response, it created a board of trustees who could set policies for Standard Oil subsidiaries in other states
Andrew Carnegie
Moved from telegraph clerk to private secretary of the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad; became the dominant figure in steel manufacture
Vertical integration
Manipulation of all the steps used in the process of making a product
Sharecropping and tenant farming
Freedmen became tenants of planters or landowners, receiving a small tract of land as well as food, shelter, and farming equipment; when it came time to harvest, the planter would take the crops, sell them, and give half of the proceeds to the tenant
Crop-lien system
A way for farmers to get credit before the planting season by borrowing against the value for anticipated harvests
The Knights of Labor
A national labor organization that combined fraternal ritual, the language of Christianity, and belief in the social equality of all citizens; advanced the cause of labor through unions and strikes and sought to use the government to protect workers
Terence V. Powderly
The leader of the Knights of Labor and a highly visible national spokesman
The Haymarket Riot
An escalation of the Knights' second strike against the Gould railroad company, in which anarchists were accused of throwing a bomb and sparking a riot
The American Federation of Labor
An alliance of craft unions and skilled workers; though anti-immigrant, the Federation achieved considerable benefits for its members through strikes and negotiations with employers
Samuel Gompers
The head of the American Federation of Labor, who believed labor should accept corporations as a fact of life; sought concrete and limited improvements in living and working conditions without the involvement of politics
The Farmers' Alliance
An organized economic movement that sought to end the crop-lien system and wanted to promote higher prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers; the precursor to the Populist Party
The "subtreasury" plan
Proposed that the federal government allow farmers to deposit imperishable goods in storage facilities and then loan the farmers money for up to eighty percent of their crops' value; was seen by the Farmers' Alliance as a potential fix for the farming credit issue
The Southern Farmers' Alliance
Demanded abolition of national banks and monopolies, free coinage of silver, paper money, loans on land, establishment of sub-treasuries, income tax acts, and revision of tariffs
Colored Farmers' National Alliance
Formed when the Southern Farmers' Alliance wouldn't allow black people to join; had the same general goals as the Southern Farmers' Alliance
The People's Party
A party consisting primarily of poor white farmers in the South that represented a radical belief in the moral superiority of farming and open hostility to big businesses and corporations

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