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Psych. Quiz 3/mid adult


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What does skin lose as we age?
Why do wrinkles happen?
What happens to the epidermus as we age?
The outer surface(epidermus) becomes thinner
Why does the epidermus break down?
The elastin and colagen fibers break down
Define Middle age? Ages?
35/45- 55/65 =ages
the gap depends on researchers
Lifestyle when younger greatly impacts you when older?
Name 3 reasons for wrinkles?
1) skin loses elasticity
2) The subcataneous fat layer under epidermis begins to diminish
3)damaging U.V. Light/ Sun
After 9/11 what was the % increase in plastic surgery in New York?


Rooted in the need for psych. control in their environment
BMR plateau's at what age?
What are the peak obesity ages in m/f?
f= 54-65
T/F after age 60, even more after 65 people tend to lose weight because of muscle lose?
Where do rods and cones live?
in the retina of the eye
rods/ cones are sensitive to light, what are each responsible for?
Rods= Black and white
Cones= color
T/F as we age rods and cones become more efficient?
Define cataracts?
Clouding (opacity) of the lense of the eye
what causes the opacity of cataractes?
As celss die and regenerate a sediment is left behind thus clouding the eye/ lense also loses elasticity as we age
Dfine Macualr degeneration?
A painless condition that is progressive that causes genereal lose of vision
Give 2 factors of Macular degeneration?
1)Highly genetic

2)High corelation (80-90%) between macular degen. and smoking
Define Glaucoma?
Disease of middle age that is painless and causes loss of sight.
Treatable not curable- the faster you catch it the better
What causes glaucoma?
A build up of humor Aqueous in the eye puts pressure on the optic nerve causing irreperaperable damage to the optic nerve and the retina
What is the leading cause of blindness in middle age and elderly?
What is the first sign of Glaucoma?
Loss of peripheral vision
Is glaucoma largely hereditary?
What does the macula of eye do, and where is it located?
Located towards the center of the retina and it distinguishes fine detail
What does the body secret during stress?Two things
Cortisol and adrnakline
How does cortisol effect the body?
Tires the body
Define Arterial Sclerosis
A general hardening of the arteries
3 stressto CV sysytem with age?
1-BP goes up with age
2-HR decreaese
3-Bloodvessles thicken
What is the leading cause of death in middle age?
Caerdiovascular diseae
What is the leading cause of CV disease in middle age?
Sedentary lifestyle
Name 2 factors effecting the CV system in middle age?
1- Alveoli become less elastic

2- respitory efficiency decline 25% in middl;e age
Define climateric? Males
Declining amount of testosterone is produced
Define Climateric in females?
Gradual period where menstration becomes irregularbefore ceasing
T/F Climateric happens in both males and females?
Name 4 things that the physio can cause in the psych?
3-depression (always follows loss)
4-Lability(mood swings/ affect)
Mood swings are to climate as affect is to weather- t/f?
what makes psycho therapy possible?
Define metacognition?
Ability to monitor your own thought process/ need for introspection
Give 5 basic memory time lines?
1-Immediate=30 seconds
2-short term= 1.5 -3 minutes
3-recent= 4-6 days
4-remote=6 months
5- long term= over 6 months
Another name for short term memory?
working memory
4 factos of short term memory?
1-tempory storage
2-first place to experience problems
3- basicall recal 7 items +/- 2
4- Math in head= working memory
What is it called when I seperate a group of numbers with a hyphen like
general rule of thumb in regards to memeeory?
Use it or lose it
where is the sub-conscience located?
in long term memory
3 factors of long term memory
1-permanent and lasting
2-can last a lifetime
3- even with diseae and injury long term stays and shrot term goes
reconition =?

recall- ?

no prompting
What 3 things help us remember?
1-strenghth of original memory
2-importance of the material/ contexts
3-personal desire to retain info
define encapsulation?
accumulation of knowledge in a small/ specific area
narrowing focus
define expertise?
encapsulation leads to expertise/ Intelligence in and area we find important to us/ narrows further
what is Erikson's 2 points of psychosocial development?
1- interpersonal relationships in family

2- career development
What is Eriksons stage being worked with in middle age?
Generativity vs. Stagnation
what is the crisis that needs to be resolved?
What specific crisis do most people have to deal with?
Genrativity/ caring for the parents and own children
Name 3 factors of stagnation
1- Ego centric
2- Self-indulgent/ give to themselves and not to others
3-self absorbed
ages of midlife crisis?
35-45 years old
what is the main thought in midlife crisis?
people are concerned with future accomplishments related to what they haven't accomplished yet
t/f a higher awarenes of physical changes impacts the psyche
t/f usually triggered by conflict or disruption in life?
give 2 perspectives on midlife crisis?
1=some say it is inevitable
2=others say it's a myth and it's like anyother stage in life with transitions and challenges
Is midlife worse than an adolescent crisis?
Yes/ harder/perspectives change/shift from birth to death that can generate hopelessness
midlife crisis is connected to? in m/f's

f=arounf family
What are Cytrynbaum's 4 points of phsych adjustments?
1-people have to accept mortality
2-have to accept biological limits
3-accept self conception
4-need to reaccess career & relationship
What are Peck's 3 points of psych adjustments
1-value wisdom more then physical
2-take socializing over sexualizing in relationship
3-atachments need to be more flexible
What are Costa and McCrae's Big 5?
Personality dimensions
3-Openness( to experience)
4- Agreeableness
5- Conscientiousness
What are the 2 different ranges of Neuroticism?
1- Being calm, comfortable, stable
2-Worried, anxious, or self-conscious
Define Extraversion?
reserved, quiet, passive
affectionate, active, outgoing
Define openness- to experience?
grounded, conventional, conservative
imaginative, creative, liberal
Define Agreeableness?
Stingy, antagonistic, irritable
generous, trusting, good natured
Define conscientious?
irresponsible, disorganized
ambitious, persevering, industrious
3 characteristics of Costa and McCrae's personality dimension?
1-all changeable situation depending
2-most are latenet- not observable
3-traits are strable but vary in diff. situations
t/f self concept at 30 will most likely be different when 80 regardless of natrure/nurture
t/f Maslow's self actualization gives the opportunity to put personality into practice
what are the 4 needs of self actualization?
1- becoming everything we are capable
2- ego maturity/ seeing other perspective/ self confidence
3- exercising potential
4-free from everyday worries- financial, survival, work, family
4 things that block potential?
1-sexual relationships
2-getting education
4-marriage and parenthood
4 traits of self- self actualization?`
1- introspective
2- lack enxiety/ rational detachment
3- Independent creativity-original
4-accurate self concept
4 more traits od self actualization?
1- stable values
2- appreciate diversity
3- Accepting reality
4-warm meaningful relationship
2 more traits of self actualization?
1-Insight of whats important
2-being able to solve problems
Define psychosomatic illness?
how the mind affects the body- hypertension, ulcers, headaches, sexual dysfunction, heart disease
t/f no relaxation is needed to minimize stress?
Define General adaptation syndrome?
A persons physio. changes when under physical or emotional stress.
Name 3 stages of Gen. Adaptation syn?
1-Alarm reaction
2- Resistence
3 responses to Alarm reaction?
1- fight of flight/ sympathetic nervous system
2-defenses prepare in this stage
3- All hormones get activated- epinephrine/ cortisol/ adrenaline
what happens during resistence stage?
energy gets up/ metabolism up/ can be present for long time without significant health problems
what happens during exhaustion stage?
Counter reaction by nervous system/ parasympathetic nervous sys. get activated/ can cause irreparable damages
Define sandwich "squeeze" generation?
taking care of parents and taking care of kids
give 2 factors relting to the conflicting needs of parents and children?
1- financial demands- retirement vs. college
2- kids want to be socially independent but not financially independent
Define generation gap?
differences between values, attitudes, behaviors, and belief's in different generations
Name the contradicting area's of agrrement?
Tend to be around fundamental values-education-career-religion-
t/f areas of disagreement are short lived?
true/ music/language/ style
what effects the gen. gap?2 things
media/ peers
T/F because core values stay the same some believe the gen. gap is a myth
true/ attribute to zeitgeist and based in individual perception
Gen. Gap is more a matter of _____ vs. ____ rather then ____ vs. _____

young=== old
What is the upside of the emptynest syndrome?
Upswing hypothesis
what is the the hallmark of the upswing hypothesis?
parents have a new sense of freedom
t/f parents that encourage autonomous children experience less empty nest?
t/f parents that are dissatisfied will reflect back o unresloved issues because once kids are gone so is sense of purpose?
t/f negative emptynest will end in divorce?
Define full nest syndrome?
Kids don't leave house
Why is Full nest syn. an increasing demographic trend? 4 things
1- financial reasons
2-can't afford to live away
3-postpone marriage
4- lonliness
Fullnest is largely an american phenomonon, causes what 3 stresses?
2-physical space
3-activaities of daily livilng
Name 4 types of marital types?
3-passive/ congenial
4- conflict habituated
define devitalized?
Couple becomes perfunctary/ dull boring/ prosaic
define total/ vital?
spontaneous/ share everything/ happy
define passive/ congenial?
no romance but people share common interest
define conflict habituated?
live in constant tension ending in codependent dysfunctional relationships
Name 6traits of an enduring( 10-20 year) marriage?
1-Adaptability- work through changes with flexibility and compromise
2-trust/confidence 3-sense of permanance 4-interdependence
5-personality factors( sense of humor)
6- a degree of luck
2 hallmarks of sexual activity in middle adult?
1-frequency declines due to ;oss of desire
2-enjoyment can go up due to familiarity with partner
t/f U.S. has the highest rate of remarriage?
true- and chances of divorce goes uo in all renariages
t/f divorces tend to happen in the first1.5 years of a remarriage?
False 3 years
T/F people tend to marry the same type of person as last marriage?
What is the % of divorce rate in remarriage when kids are involved?
what agges can kids best adjust to remarriage?
9-16 years old
T/F If a couple is yound and can ID what needs to be fixed they have a shot?
define Blended family?
Brady bunch-taking 2 families and making 1 family
why do blended families have problems?
because children have adjustment issues
4 types of adjustment issues for kids in blended family?
1-Ambiguous roles
2-comples kin relationships
3-Financial obligations
4-Loyalty issues
T/F hardest adjustment is in the first three years?
Define career maintenance phase?
People are no longerclimbing career ladder/ plateau
define career clock?
Mostly a social clock, a subjective sense of being where you think you should be by a certain age/ if on time satisfied/ if behind=disatisfied
name 3 types of employee stress?
1-alienation-person feels like he doesn't belong
3- Sexual harssment
define Burnout employee stress/ 4 things?
1-depleated of enthusiasm
2-lacks resorces to make a difference
3-expectations are unfulfilled
4-can go against status
Define Sexual harassment?
Unwanted sexual advances either verbal or physical
name 2 ways sexual harassment can happen?
1-Quid pro Quo- sleep for promotion
2- hostile environment
name 5 reasons to change career?
1-don'tr like the nature of the work
2-better pay or social recognition
3-obsolete industry
4-Down sizing
5-Change in family situation
9 out of 10 times people return to work for .....?
want better job/ vocational purposes
why do many adults shy away from going back to school?
fear of unknown
T/F Most adults who return back to school benefit psychologically?
t/f middle age are more prone to unemployment because of higher salaries?
4 stages unemployment?
2-concerted effort
3- Vacillation/self doubt

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