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Biology 9 Spring Final


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Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
observe and describe microscopic organisms as living cells.
Robert Hooke
coined the term cells to describe the boxlike structures
Matthias Schleiden
plants are “aggregates of fully, independent, separate beings, namely the cells themselves.
Theodor Schwann
animals are also made of cells and proposed a cellular basis of life
Rudolf Virchow
the animal arises only from an animal and the plant only from a plant.⬝
Janet Plowe
cell membrane is a physical structure, not an interface between two liquids
Lynn Margulis
certain organelles, tiny structures within some cells, were once free-living cells themselves.
What is the cell theory?
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic organizational unit of life. 3. All cells arise from preexisting cells.
Which Scientists contributed to the cell theory?
Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow
Why is the cell theory important?
emphasizes the similarity of all living systems
what are the three main parts of a cell?
cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm
What are the two divisions of cells?
Cells are prokaryotes or eukaryotes
Define Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes (animal and plant cells) contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, multicellular
Define Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes (bacteria) lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, unicellular and multicellular
What structures are not in animal cells?
chloroplasts, central vacuole, tonoplast, cell wall, plasmodesmata
What structures are not in plant cells?
lysosomes, centrioles, flagella (in some plant sperm)
Cell wall
Contains cellulose fibers; provides support and protection to plant cells.
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
Defines cell boundary; regulates molecule passage into and out of the cell.
The control center of the cell; stores genetic information; site of DNA and RNA synthesis.
Concentrated area of chromatin, RNA, and proteins; site where ribosomes form
Nuclear Envelope
double layered membrance around the nuecleus that Allows passage of ribosomes out of nucleus and into the cytoplasm
Protein and RNA in 2 subunits; plays major role in protein synthesis.
Jellylike mixture consisting of mostly water, with proteins and carbohydrates. Site of many biological reactions
Everything between the cell membrane and nucleus; consist of 2 main parts: cytosol & organelles.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Membranous flattened channels and tubular canals; synthesis of proteins and other substances; gives rise to vesicles.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes; protein synthesis.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Endoplasmic reticulum with no ribosomes; lipid synthesis.
Golgi apparatus
Stack of membranous sacks; processing, packaging, and distribution of proteins and lipids.
Membranous sac; storage area for liquid substances
Membranous sac; storage area for solid substances
Membranous vesicle containing digestive enzymes; site of intracellular digestion
Membranous organelle bounded by an outer membrane; site of aerobic cellular respiration. Makes ATP- adenosine triphosphate
Membranous organelle bounded by an outer membrane; site of photosynthesis.
Microtubules, intermediate filaments, actin filaments; shape of cell and movement of its parts
Cilia and Flagella
9 + 2 pattern of microtubules. Moves the cell
The cell membrane is made of
Phospholipids=1 glycerol+2 fatty acids+1 PO4) Phosphate Head (Hydrophilic or “Water loving”); water-soluble Lipid Tail (Hydrophobic or “Water hating”); water-insoluble Phospholipid bilayer
What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?
Proteins in and on the membrane form patterns or mosaics on the membrane. Lipids in and on the membrane are fluid and have the consistency of vegetable oil.
How is the nucleolus identified?
Is the darkest region in the nuecleus. It disappears whren the cell is about to divide
The nuecleus holds what?
DNA material
The cytoplasm is
Everything but cell membrane and nucleus.
The cytoplasm is made of
Cytoplasm: cytosol and organelles.
Define Organelles
Structures that work like miniature organs carrying out specific cell functions.
What are the 3 structures that prokaryotes and eukaryotes share?
cell membrance, ribosomes, and cell wall
Which molecules can enter the cell freely?
small ones
Which molecules can not enter the cell freely?
large ones and ions
Diffusion and facilitated diffusion
passive, towards lower concentration, needs concentration gradient. Facilitated needs carrier protiens
active transport
active, towards higher concentration, needs carrier proteins and energy
active towards the outside, vesicle fuses with the membrane
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
active, towards the inside, vacoule/ vesicle formation
diffusion of water
isotonic solution
cell neither gains nor loses water
hypotonic solution
cell gians water and may burst
hypertonic solution
cell loses water and may shrink
microtublues join together to form what?
flagella or cillia
microtublues serve as
track for organelles to move in a cell
muscle movement
why are cells small?
more surface area for a given volume of cytoplasm because The cells nucleus can only control a certain amount of living active cytoplasm
what are the four levels of organazation
cells, tissue, organs, organ systems
dna bound to proteins, are spread throughout the nuecleus, condenses to form chromosomes
cell specialization
separate roles for each type of cell
selective permeability
some substances can pass and others can not
unexpected change to the genetic material
Hugo de Vries
the first scientist to refer to abrupt changes in genetic material as mutations–mutants
Thomas Hunt Morgan
discovered that chromosomes were probably made up of many smaller sections called genes– gene theory of inheritance
somatic mutation
mutations in the body cells, passed on to its daughter cells, not passed to offspring
germ cell mutation
mutations in the sperm or egg cells and they are passed on to the zygote
mutations are caaused by
mutagesn include
chemicals, radiation, and temperature
Walter Sutton
Discovered theory of inheritance
The basic unit of heredity
Johann Miescher
Discovered DNA in 1869
Frederick Griffith
In 1928, performed a very important experiment trying to isolate the “transforming factor” that changed nondeadly bacteria into deadly bacteria.
Oswald T. Avery
In 1944, Oswald T. Avery and a team of scientists at Rockefeller University decided to repeat Griffith’s experiment in an attempt to discover the identity of the “transforming factor.” • Conclusion: DNA was the factor that transformed the bacteria into disease-producing bacteria.
Linus Pauling
helical structures – structures that resemble a circular staircase.
Erwin Chargaff
complementary base pairing
Rosalind Franklin
X-ray diffraction photographs
James Watson and Francis Crick
In 1953, constructed a model of DNA that showed its structure.
Small units that make up DNA
The 4 bases in DNA
DNA replication
The process of DNA making exact copies of itself
DNA Polymerase
enzyme that “proofreads” new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA.
enzyme that participates in DNA replication by unwinding the double helix near the replication fork.
enzyme that links together the 3’ end of one nucleic acid strand with the 5’ end of another forming a continuous strand.
protein synthesis
Protein building. It directs the formation of protein molecules by 2 processes: transcription & translation.
Process by which the DNA message is copied onto a strand of mRNA.
Process of building the protein from the mRNA instructions.
deoxyribonucleic acid.
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
All chromosomes othere than sex chromosomes
Chromosome maps
can be constructed to show the relative position of genes on a chromosome.
Nicleotide is composed of?
a sugar molecule, a phosphate molecule, and a nitrogen base
Double Helix
The structure of DNA
Single Helix
The structure of RNA
termination codon
Ends Protein synthesis
DNA contains __, but not __
Phosphorus, Sulfer
Proteins contain __, but not __
Sulfer, Phosphorus
Receiving traits from parents
Gregor Johann Mendel
An Austrian monk. Was the first researcher to describe the inheritance of traits.
The study of heredity
The mathamatics of chance
pure lines
refer to a plant and its offspring that show a particular trait generation after generation.
A hybrid is produced when⬦
When two different pure lines are crossed
Mendel concluded that
some traits were stronger or more assertive than others.
Mendel’s Law of Dominance
states that when a (pure) dominant and a (pure) recessive trait are present,the dominant trait will show the hybrid organisms.
Mendel's Law of Incomplete Dominance
states that there are times when neither trait in a contrasting pair is dominant over the other.
Mendel’s Law of Segregation
states that each individual carries two factors for each trait.
Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
states that factors for different traits are inherited independently.
passing of traits from one generation to the next generation
a scientist who studies genetics.
Mendel’s factors are now called what?
One half of a gene pair
What do geneticists use to represent allels?
an organism that has inherited two identical alleles and is pure for that trait.
organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
the actual genetic makeup of an individual organism.
describes the outward expression of the genotype.
Punnett squares
diagrams geneticists use to show the possible genotypes of a particular genetic cross.
dihybrid cross
shows a 9:3:3:1 ratio
Morgan reasoned that genes
determine specific traits, and that many genes are located on a single chromosome.
chromosomal mutations
cause changes to the cell and organism
gene mutations
Cause changes in individual genes and involve changes in DNA code. Ultimately changes the order of bases in a DNA strand causing the changed gene to code for a different protein.
Chromosomal Mutations occur during
cell division
Occurs when homologous pairs of chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
extra chromosome in cell
missing a chromosome
Down Syndrome
trisonomy 21
both gameteshave 2N chromosomes, lethal in animals, not in plants
Occurs when a piece of DNA breaks off and does not rejoin the chromosome
Occurs when a fragment from one chromosome attaches to another chromosome.
A section of a chromosome detaches and rejoins, but in an upside-down position
Arise as the result of unequal crossing over between synapsed chromosomes during meiosis. A chromosomal aberration in which a segment of the chromosome is repeated
a piece of a chromosome breaks off and is added to antoher chromosome
gene mutation in which melanin is not produced
point mutation
involves one base in the DNA- RNA codes for wrong protein
Frameshift Mutation
a base in the DNA is added or taken out, affects every codon afterwards
what provides some of the variation that is important to the process of evolution
accumulation of genetic variations that help organisms survive and adapt to changes in their enviorment
defins the role of restriction enzymes
surrounds the DNA molecule at the point it seeks. It cuts the DNA in the complementary spots (same bases in between) the edges have sticky edges
restriction site
point where the sequence of DNA is cut
ligase (biotechnology)
join the pieces of DNA together
gene splicing
process of adding DNA from one organism to another
are similar to viruses, but lack a protein coat and cannot move from cell to cell in the same fashion as a virus.
asexual production that makes identical copies of DNA
Gel electrophoresis
uses aragose gel and a electirc current. Dna is placed in the gel, and the current is in the gel. Based on rate of migration, DNA size can be calculated (small = faster)
from what are scientists able to sequence the bases in a DNA molecule
gel electophoresis
polymerase chain raction- increases the amount of DNA and diagnoses human genetic disroders
DNA Fingerprinting
It is a process that involves using DNA to identify a person; it is often used to compare a sample of DNA found in tissues collected at a crime scene with the DNA of a suspect.
applied biological science. The use of genetic material in living organisms to help make useful products or solve medical problems
how has the use of biotechnology affected our lives?
affected the ways we diagnose and even prevent human diseases, many practices in agriculture, forensic science
the dna starnds are heated and complementary base pairs break apart and the double helix dissociates into two single strands
DNA is left at 149 degrees F and the two strands come back together
DNA hybridization
if RNA is intorduced to the denatured DNA, RNA competes with the coding DNA and can form a double heliz with DNA and RNA
hybridization reactions can be used to
detect and characterize nucleotide sequences using a particular nucleotide sequence as a probe.
recombanint DNA
are actually moved from one DNA molecule and inserted into another
Plasmid vectors
are small circular molecules of double stranded DNA derived from natural plasmids that occur in bacterial cells. A piece of DNA can be inserted into a plasmid if both the circular plasmid and the source of DNA have recognition sites for the same
after DNA is cut, what happens with the exposed ends
they become sticky and they are also complementary
DNA cloning
The new plasmid can be introduced into bacterial cells that can produce many copies of the inserted DNA
through the use of restriction enzymes
Scientists are able to combine two different DNA fragments through the use of restriction enzymes.
restriction enzymes
scientists cut a strand of DNA at a particular point in the sequence of bases
Morals and Biotechnology
Many people of concerned that certain application of biotechnology will lead to possible abuses of individual rights. Decision about the used of biotechnology often involve value judgments that will have to be decided by society. While the uses and consequences of biotechnology are debated, many benefits to society have already been achieved using the techniques and new discoveries are being made daily.
a new plasmid contains what
foreign DNA
when a mismatches occur in recombanint DNA⬦
they produce an undesireable result

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