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One of the adaptation necessary for the evolution of tall vascular plants was
an effective water-conducting system
Xylem and phloem are found in all land plants except
what is the main advantage of of a plant's having root hairs
to increase the surface area of roots
the purpose of a transport system is to
carry nutrients to cells and waste products away from cells
in order for land plants to obtain gases for photosynthesis and cell respiration, land plantrs mus have
the movement of water through xylem tissue
is all passive transport
plants with mycorrhizae on their roots systems
have an enhanced method for obtaining nutrients
which of the following explains how water and its dissolved nutrients reach the top of a 100-meter-tall tree
the cohesion-tension hypothesis
which of these is not a factor in the cohesion-tension theory
root pressure
the movement of food from the leavevs to the roots is explained by
pressure-flow hypothesis
to produce an upward movements of wat in xylem
water must evaporate from the top
according to the cohesion-tension theory of water transport, if a tall 100-meter-tall tree were to have water flow, it would require
a continuous column of water 100 meters high
what plant structures carries water
how does water escape from plants with xylem
stomata in the leaves
the phloem cell in stems transport
food down to the roots
an insect's digested nutrients are transported by
an open circulatory system
the concentraion of nutrients in the fluid traveleing away from the hear is different from the concentration in teh fluid returning to the heart. this statement is a reasonable description of
a closed circulatory system
hydras lack a special transport system and grasshoppers cannot survive without one, because
diffusion can supply the cells of hydras with essential materials
many capillaries are found
throughout all organs
the blood vessels through which oxygen rapidly diffuses are the
in a four-chambered heart, separation of blood from the lungs and blood from the rest of the body increases efficiency of
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood, body cells, and lungs
an artery comes from the
bottom right part of the heart
ventricles are at the
bottom of the heart
a disadvantage of a three-chambered heart is that
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix
what maintains the heart's regular rhythm
the walls of arteries are more elastic and muscular than the walls of veins, which allows arteries to
withstand the pressure of each blood surge from the heart
which of theses is a characteristic of veins, not of arteries
the hemoglobin of red blood cells greatly incereases the blood's
oxygen-carrying capacity
food molecules absorbed from the intestine of an animal are carried throughtout the body by
the fluid of the circulatory system
a person having a low red blood cell count will have fifficulty
transporting oxygen to cells
a doctor orders a blood test to check for abnormal chemicals in the blood. if present, in which part of the blood would the chemicals be found
the lymphatic systems gathers intercellulars fluid that was originally in teh
lymph fluid contains
white blood cells, water, and salts
much of the fluid that leaks into bodytissues returns to the circulatory system via
lymph vessels
the elements in blood responsible for clotting are
the protein in blood taht forms a blood clot is
which is not a function of the circulatory system
releasing enzymes for food digestion
the human circulatory system aids in maintaining homeostasis by
transporting nutrients, wastes, and hormones
in eukaryotic multicellular organisms, cell division serves all of these purposes except
reproduction of new individuals
when does a prokaryote's membrane pinch inward and divide the cell in two
when the cellvolume has doubled
prokaryotic cell dicision is referred to as
binary fission
which functions are served by cell division
it allows surface area to keep up with growing volume of an organism, replaces cells that wear out or are damaged, produces many types of cells that serve a variety of functions
eukaryotic cell division requires
accurate replication and equal division of the genetic information encoded in the cell's DNA
which of the following statements is true
the cell cycle is similar in all eukaryotes
the phase of the cell cycle involving sorting and distribution of chromosomes is
interphase is
the period between cell divisions
during G1 and G2, cell synthesize
proteins, RNA, and other macromolecules
the G0 phase of the cell cycle is
a stopping point is G1
adult cells that do not, or rarely, divide will be found primarily in what phase of the cellcycle
using a light microscope, you can most easily recognize chromosomes in what phase of the cell cycle
division of the whole eukaryotic cell is called
when a cell with 24 chromosomes during G1 phase divides by mitotic cell division, t he resulting offspring cells will each have a maximum chromosome number of
after normal mitotic division, how many chromosomes does each offspring cell contain, as compared to the parent cell
the same number
in order for a substance to act as a carrier of hereditary information, it must be
precisely copied during the cell cycle
in eukaryotic cells, when does chromosome replication occur
during interphase
DNA is replicated during which phase of the cell cycle
adult nerve cells stay in the G0 phase, this means they
do not divide
a scientist was collecting data about the number of chromosomes that a certain organis had. most of the skin cells that he examined had a certain amount of chromosomal material, but he found some skin cells with double the chromosomal material. what migh
some skin cells werer in the G2 phase
a graduate student was told to use a light microscope to count the number of chromosomes in the cells of a newly discovered species. what phase of the cell cycle would the student have to investigate
the backbone of DNA in compose of
sugars linked through phosphates
synthesis of DNA
involves enzymes that bind to the DNA
watson and crick describeed the DNA molecule asa a
double-stranded molecule
how does the sequence of basaes on one strand of DNA control the sequence of bases on the second strand
adenine on one strand can pair only with thymine on the oter strand; cytosine, only with guanine
why does adenine paironly with thymine and cytosine only with guanine in a DNA molecule
their molecular shape deterines how they are paired
DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA strands. During what phase of the cell cycle would a researcher be able to investigate the activity of this enzyme
why are the new bases of the two DNA strands added in opposite directions during replication
the DNA polymerases can work only in one direction
the replication of a double-stranded DNA molecule begins when the strands separate at the
hydrogen bonds between paired nulceotides
histones are
nuclear proteins
what is the function of "proofreader" enzymes
they identify and repair incoorect or damaged nucleotides
Why is theDNA repair sequence important to an organism's survival
it reduces the number of mutations that are copied
involve any change in the sequence of a cell's DNA
which molecule acts as proofreader during dNA replication
DNA polymerase
structures that hold sister chromatids together in double-stranded chromosomes are known as
each strand of double-stranded chromosome is known as a
a cell with 8 chomosomes before mitosis will produce new cells that have
8 chromosomes
the process of mitosis ensures
euqal division of nuclear material
in mitosis, breakdwon of the nuclear membrane occurs in
a mitotic spindle is formed from
in mitotosis, separation of sister chromatids occurs during
prograssion trhough teh cell cycle is regulated by
a gemete contains
a half set of chromosomes
a sygote begins to develop jst after
the fertilized egg is a single cell that contains
chromosomes from both egg and sperm
the multiple rounds of mitosis that produce many small cells is called
by the end of cleavage, the embryo consists of a mass of cells called
the inner lining of the digestive system forms from this (these) tissue layer(s)
your skin and nails form from this (these) tissue layer(s)
mesoderm tissues were placed in a dish with saline solution for 3 hours. the mesoderm was removed, and ectoderm tissues were placed in the dish. Ectoderm was also placed in a second dish containing saline solution. what hypothesis was being tested?
mesoderm may produce a chemical that induces ectoderm to differentiate
this stiff rod that runs down the middle of the embryo that will become a part of the backbone is called the
a tadpole transforms into a frog through a process caled
these cells are specialized for transporting oxygen
red blood cells
these cells contain a major protein called keratin
skin cells
these cells contain a major protein called hemoglobin
red blood cells
the three layers that make up the gastrula are called
primary germ layers
sex cells, such as the sperm in males and the egg in females, are also called
the blastula forms during this stage
cell division
muscle cells, nerve cells, and skin cells result from this process
cell determination
cleavage of the fertilized egg occurs during this process
cell division
this process noticeable begins at the gastrula stage
cell determination
an energy-rich collection of lipids and proteins in the cytoplasm of the egg is called the
as cells differentiate, they organize to form the tissues and organs of complete animals in a process called
the major changes during the development of a blastula into a gastrula are called
which of the following processes gererates shape and form in an embryo
the union of sperm and egg is called
in mammals, nutrients, wastes, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are exchanged between mother and embryo by the
mammal embryos are attached to the placenta by the
umbilical cord
in vertebrates, accidental separation of the two cells that are formed during cleavage results in
identical twins
one organ can be transformed into another due to errors in
homeotic genes
the hypothesis that states that all cells contain the same genes is the
genetic-equivalence hypotesis
a human embryo does not contain a
large supply of stored food
an experiment where the nucleus of an unfertilized egg is replaced with the nucleus of a differentiated cell could demonstrate
how much the nucleus controls cell development
to clone sheep, ian wilmut and his colleagues replaced the nucleus of a sheep's egg with the nucleus of a cell from
a female sheep's udder
the cloning of a sheep in 1996 was an important experimental result, supporting the
genetic-equivalence hypothesis
genes act by directing the synthesis of
which of teh following statements is true
gene expression is controlled differently in specific cell types
dna and rna are
nucleic acids
dna controls protein synthesis by
encoding amino acid sequence
dna controls teh tertiary structure of proteins because dna is directly responsible for
transcription of rna and amino-acid sequence
proteins are synthesized from less complex organic molecules known as
amino acids
mRNA carries the genetic code of dna because
the mRNA has a sequence exactly complementary to the dna
amino acids are required in the human diet principally for the synthesis of
which group of organic compounds includes enzymes
which of the following is not representatice of known types of RNA molecules
previous RNA (pRNA)
the sequence of nucleotides in a messenger rna molecule (mRNA) is determined by the sequence
dna molecule
the ribosomes of the cell are sites for the synthesis of
in a cell the transfer of genetic information from dna to rna occurs in the
dna in the nucleus controls the activities in the rest of the cell by serving as a blueprint for
one type contains instruction for protein synthesis
nucleic acids
one type is the carrier of hereditary information
nucleic acids
which compound is used primarily as a source of stored energy
none of the above
the dna code for an amino acid consists of a sequence of
3 nitrogen bases taken from 4 possible bases
how did scientists determine that using single and double nitrogen bases for the codes for amino acids would not be sufficient
scientists knew that there were 20 different amino acids and therefore at least three bases were needed
which molecules are chains of nucleotides
both dna and rna molecules
which molecules contain uracil
rna molecules
which molecules contain cytosine
both dna and rna molecules
which molecules contain ribose
rna molecules
which molecules control hereditary instructions in animals, plants, and most protists
dna molecules
which molecules are assumed to be a double helix
dna molecules
which molecules are found in three different forms in any given cell
rna molecules
whcih molecules are composed of a specific amino acid sequence
neithe rdna nor rna molecules
gene expression begins with
rna synthesis
the enzyme that initiates the first stage of transcription is
rna polymerase
which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures
nucleus, chromosome, dna, nucleotide
the specific protein produced in a cell is directly related to the
nucleotide sequence in the dna molecule
why is the rna in the cyosol much smaller than the rna in the nucleus
noncoding regions of rna are removed in the nucleus
the function of tRNA molecules is to
transport amino acids to mRNA
the production of proteins is directed by the dna because it is the template for
which of teh following carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
transfer RNA oly
where does translation take place
replicate, but are not considered to be alive
in general, viral replication involves
production of viral proteins and assembly of viral particles within a hsot cell
gemes are sequences of nucleotides that may code for
polypeptides, proteins, tRNA, and mRNA
each paraent contributes one of two genes for a particular trait. the gene pairs are called
a eukaryotic chromosome is a
long molecule of DNA, some of which is never translated
the Pace family has seven children, one son and six daughters. what is the chance that the eighth child will be a daughter
what is the chance, if a couple has two children, that they will have on boy and one firl
a coin is tossed three times. the probablility that it will alnd heads up all three times is
a tossed coin lands heads up six times straight. what is the probablility that it will lands tails up on the secenth toss
two coins are tossed together 40 times. approximately how many times should both lands tails up
in mating pea plants with yellow pods and pea plants with green pods. Mendel found the f1 offspring produced only green pods. Mendel suggested that the yellow trait
is not express when its factor is present in combination with the green factor
a trait is not visible in teh f1 generation but reappears unchanged in the f2 generation is
during gamete formation in a diploid organism
alleles separate from one another
mendel's principle of segragation refers to the
separation of alleles for a particular trait during gamete formation
which step in meiosis corresponds to Mendel's principle of segragation
separation of homologoues chromosomes
what type of gametes can be produced by a pea plant with green pods and round seeds (genotype GGRr)
GR, Gr
what type of gametes can be produced bya pea plant that is tall with yellow seeds (genotype TtYy)
TY, Ty, tY, ty
if three quarters of the offspring from many experimental crosses showed only teh dominant traits, the parents were
both heterozygous
the gene for rough coat (R) is dominant to smooth coat (r) in in a guinea pig. if a smoth coated guinea pig was bred to a roughcoated guinea pig and had seven smoothcoated and eith roughcoated offspring, what are the genotypes of the parents.
one parent is homozygous recessive, and the other parent is heterozygous
the gene for rough coat (R) is dominant to smooth coat (r) in in a guinea pig. if a smoth coated guinea pig was bred to a roughcoated guinea pig and had seven smoothcoated and eith roughcoated offspring, what are the genotypes of the roughcoated offsprin
the genetic makeup of an organism for aparticular trait
is determined by the genotype
the genotypes that cannot be dtermined by inspecting the phenotypes of the offspring of a cross are
homozygous dominant and heterozygous dominant
if homozygous redflowered plants crossed with white flowered platns proc=dcued all red flowered offspring, the gene for red florers must have been
genetic traits of seeds are noted as follows: G = long, W = wrinkled, Y = yellow, R = ribbed, g = short, w = smooth, y = white, r = grooved. which of the following is a possible genotype for a short, wrinkled, yellow, grooved seed
two animals with the Aa genotype had one offspring. its genotyupe was aa. what is the probability that heir next offspring will have the genotype aa?
if two offspring result from the cross Aa x Aa, what is the probablility that both offspring will havet the genotype aa?
a certain dominant gene is located on the X chromosome. a father will transmit the gene and the resultin condition to
all hist daughters
if a decective gene is on the X chromosome, transmission to a female can be
either from the mother or fromthe father
if a defective gene is on the X chromosome, transmission to a male can be
only from his mother
in 1988, a florida couple chared a hospital with baby swapping, claiming that the baby they brought home was not their biological daughter. the father and the baby had type B blood, the mother type O. in terms of blood type, could the baby have belonged
yes, the baby could have BO genotype.
can a person with type a blood safely receive a transfusion of type O blod
yes, there are no A and B surface proteins on the type O blood cells
when the two bell shaped swash plants are crossed, 25% of the offspring are round, 25% oblong, and 50% in between, or bellshaped. this cross illustrates
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis is called

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