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Bio Midterms and Questions


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B-lymphocytes release _____? What type of immunity are they?
Antibodies; they don't kill bacteria; HUMORAL IMMUNITY
T-lymphocytes release _____? What type of immunity are they?
Perforin molecules which signal the cell to go into apoptosis; CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
Antibodies are _____ but Antigens are _____
Antibodies are good but Antigens are bad
What is clonal selection?
B-cell that recognizes divisions because making clone
How do you join base pairs?
sticky ends and DNA ligase
RFLP = ?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (used for fingerprinting and comparing genomes)
What does the homeobox do?
Regulates embryo development; hox genes
What is an episome?
a type of plasmid that can also integrate into the host genome through the DNA genome
Macromolecules are synthesized through what kind of reactions? What is the other kind of reaction?
Dehydration (synthesis); hydrolysis (breaking apart)
Viruses differ from all other living things in that (2 ways)?
(1) Viruses are not comprised of cells and (2) they possess either DNA or RNA
What must all living cells be able to synthesize as a source of chemical energy?
ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate)
What are the 3 types of macromolecules and their building blocks, and which is most abundant in all cells?
3 types: Carbohydrates (monosaccharides), Proteins (amino acids), Nucleic Acids (nucleotides); Most abundant = Proteins
What is one kind of human cell that cannot divide even though it is living
What property of R groups in amino acids help make proteins soluble in the fluid region of membranes
polar and charged
in DNA, adenine is paired with ?
adenine - thymine
In DNA, guanine is paired with ?
In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine
In RNA, adenine binds with ?
In RNA, adenine binds with uracil (only found in RNA!)
Why do most proteins possess a quarternary structure?
Most proteins possess a quaternary structure because they contain more than one polypeptide (terciary structure is only 1 polypeptide)
What is chromatin comprised of?
Chromatin is comprised of histones and DNA
What charge does DNA have?
negative (DNA)
To neutralize the charge on DNA, what must the charge of histones be?
positive (histones)
If something is acidic, what is it's charge? Basic?
Acidic - negative; Basic - positive
If a tripeptide has 2 acidic R groups and 1 basic R group, what is the net charge?
1- is the net charge: (2-) + (1+) = 1-
What polysaccharides are comprised of glucose?
starch, cellulose, and glycogen are polysaccharides that are comprised of glucose
WHat holds DNA's double helix together?
Hydrogen bonds joining the bases hold DNA strands together
What is the sugar in DNA called?
What is the sugar in RNA called?
What is the site of protein synthesis in prokaryotes?
The mitochondria is an organelle which contains?
Organelle - contains cytochromes and the electron transport chain (ETC)
What does the golgi apparatus do?
Golgi apparatus - traffic cop; modifies proteins chemically to help direct their final location
What do lysosomes do?
Their enzymes break down old denatured proteins
What does the plastid do?
the plastid contains chlorophyll and carries out photosynthesis
Describe ROUGH Endoplasmic Reticulum ?
Rough ER: intracellular membrane network with ribosomes attached
Describe SMOOTH Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Smooth ER: intracellular membrane network with NO ribosomes and synthesizes lipids
What does cholesterol do?
Cholesterol affects the fluidity of biological membranes and is needed for the synthesis of steroids
Which chemical is the major component of all biological membranes?
Draw a plasma membrane!
!!!!(~~~)!!!! <-- hydrophobic tails
oooo(~~~)oooo <--hydrophilic heads
Receptor mediated endocytosis does what?
Receptor mediated endocytosis is a specific type of transport what cause the genetic disease hypercholesterolemia
In what ways are living cells able to drive reactions that require energy?
1. Increase reactants at the site
2. Decrease the products at the site
3. Use a coupling reaction to create an exergonic reaction at the site
What does activation energy do, how does it affect the substrate?
The enzyme speeds up biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of the substrate
How does the enzyme catalase catalyze the reaction?
It affects the rate in both directions
Glycolysis is the anaerobic oxidation of ______ to ______ while the coenzyme _____ gets _________
Glycolysis is the anaerobic oxidation of glucose to pyruvate while the coenzyme NAD+ gets reduced
What is fermentation?
Fermentation is the reduction of pyruvate to lactate or some other organic molecule
What happens to NADH and where does it come from?
During fermentation, the coenzyme NADH is OXIDIZED; it is derived from the vitamin NIACIN
Glycolysis produces how many net moles of ATP per mole of glucose? (? ATP = 1 glucose)
Glycolysis: 2 ATP = 1 glucose
How many moles of ATP are produced by fermentation per mol of pyruvate?
Fermentation: 0 ATP = 1 pyruvate
Where is the Krebs cycle located?
Krebs cycle is in the MATRIX
Where are the enzymes for glycolysis located?
glycolysis is in the cytosol
Krebs cycle produces how many net moles of ATP per mole of pyruvate that is oxidized? How much per glucose?
Krebs cycle: 1 ATP = 1 pyruvate = (2 ATP = 1 glucose)
Mitochondria produces how many net moles of ATP per mole of glucose?
Mitochondria: 32 ATP = 1 glucose
Glucose is oxidized into what?
H20 and CO2
What do redox reactions create?
Redox reations --> proton gradient
The proton gradient synthesizes ______ through ______ and _______?
The proton gradient synthesizes ATP through mitochondria and chloroplasts?
THe synthesis of ATP is catalyzed by what enzyme?
ATP Synthase?
What are cytochromes?
Cytochromes: iron atoms (ions) present in redox catalysts
Where does ATP synthase occur?
What inhibits ATP synthesis in mitochondria by combining with cytochromes?
Where is the ETC located?
ETC: innermembrane of the mitochondria
Where do homologous duplicated chromosomes line up along one axis of the cell?
Mitosis I
What happens in Prophase I?
Prophase I: Recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes
What is the probability that 3 of your chromosomes are all derived from your mother's father?
P = (1/2)^3
If chromosomes fail to segregate normally, what stage would this occur during?
Meosis I
What is nondisjunction?
When chromosomes fail to segregate normally
What is a chromosome abnormality that increases markedly as a function of mother's age?
Down Syndrome
What is an example of a sex-linked recessive trait?
Hemophilia (is only on the x-chromosome)

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