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Epidemiology Ch. 8


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Any factor or influence upon the research activity.
___ epidemiology is where the researcher is not allowed to try and control for variables.
___ epidemiology is the most common and traditional type of research found in epidemiology.
Any factor or attribute influencing research variables prior to the activity occurring.
A study that falls short in meeting the strict letter-of-the-law of the design, but includes the basic foundations of good research design.
___ trials use nonrandom data.
___ trials us random data.
___ trials and ___ trials are the 2 most used design approaches using experimental design approach in epidemiology.
community; clinical
___ studies are not true epidemiological studies.
The factors or conditions that occur and exist in both treatment and control groups that cause no change in the experimental group.
dependent variable
The treatment or the change agent is the ___ variable.
The factor that caused the change is referred to as the ___ variable.
In ___ research, a cause-effect relationship is easily observed.
___ is the effectivness of treatment in the subjects and degree of change due to the action of the independent variable.
level of confidence
A study where the data is not manipulated, but the data's effect is measured after is has occurred.
ex post facto
___ studies are done ex post facto.
___ studies are retrospective studies.
case control
To establish a restrospective study, clear guidelines concerning the ___, ___, and ___ must be set so that precise criteria about the cases can be established.
severity; extent; stages of the disease
In ___ studies, incidence is preferred over prevalence.
___ is the only determining factor that determines which group each subject is assigned to.
Subjecs are assigned at random to different treatment groups.
multiple treatment groups
___ are fake treatments.
___ studies reduces bias and confounding variables.
If the subjects have already been exposed.
A ___ approach will allow the treatment group to serve as its own controls.
Variables or factors known to be related to, associated with, or which can influence the state of the subjects being studied.
confounding variables
The process of selecting controls so that they have similar effects or characteristics as the cases.
___ is used to remove the effect of confounding variables.
The changes and variation in the disease or health status of a study population as the study groups move through time.
cohort/generation effect
A study in which each individual in a group or research sample that is representative of the study population is represented for one point in time and the findings represent that particular time.
cross-sectional study
___ studies are limited to what data have been gathered at one point in time.
Surveys are an example of a ___ study.
___ studies are more effective in chronic diseases and less effective in communicabl diseases with short incubation periods and short durations.
The selection of individuals who will participate as subjects from the research population.
random selection
The assignment of subjects to groups so that each person has an equal chance of being selected to be in the study group.
random assignment
Cutting up lists and drawing names is an example of a ___.
random sample
___ sample includes recipients of a service, those involved in a clinic or available at a worksite.
Only those who are identifiable or are at hand are included in a study and excluded in a study are those not easily identifiable nor easy to access.
visibility bias
When samples in a study are chosen by alphabetical order, numerical order, street address, or other sequential ordering.
order bias
___ bias occurs most often when field workers are allowed to pick the sample.
What happens when subjects are set too closely together, and may interact and share information.
cluster bias
The way that cohort data is arranged and tabulated, assessed as cohorts pass through time, age and live life.
cohort analysis
A group of persons being studied who were born in the same year or time period.
Charts which summarize the patterns of survival and death in study groups of certain types of disease such as chronic diseases.
life tables
For chronic diseases, cohort ___ are used to estimate the probability of surviving or dying within a specified time period after diagnosis.
life tables

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