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Health Vocab Chapter 8


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a group of organs that produce an release chemical substances
Endocrine Glands
the chemical substances that are produced by endocrine glands
a small gland a the base of the brain
Pituitary Glands
regulates body temperature, use of water, and blood pressure
located above the kidneys, produce hormones affecting kidney function, metabolism, and response to stress
Adrenal Glands
a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is released in response to fear or stress; it causes heartbeat, blood pressure, and breathing rate to increase
located at the front of the neck that regulate the rate of metabolism and help to regulate the amount of calcium in the blood
Thyroid Glands
four tiny endocrine glands attached to the back of the thyroid gland that regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body
Parathyroid Glands
a large gland located behind that stomach that is part of two systems, As an endocrine gland, it secretes hormones that control blood-sugar levels and as a digestive organ it secretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine
a condition in which the body produces too much insulin, resulting in low blood sugar
an endocrine gland located in the upper chest that helps to develop the body’s defense against infection
two female reproductive glands located one on each side of the body a few inches below the waist
two male reproductive glands located in the scrotum
a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that acts in females to stimulate the estrogen production and the maturation of egg cells, and in males to stimulate sperm production
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that acts in females to stimulate ovulation and progesterone production and in males to stimulate sperm and testosterone production
Luteinizing Hormone
a hormone produced by the testes that affects the production of sperm, the development of male secondary sex characteristics, and the sex drive
male sex cells
a hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle and helps to maintain the uterus during pregnancy
a hormone produced by the ovaries that regulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and controls the sex drive
female sex cells; AKA eggs
a period of sexual development during which males and females become sexually mature and able to produce children
the joining of the sperm cell with an egg cell
the external sac of kin in which the testes are located
a J-shaped tube located on the back of each testis in which sperm are stored for two to four days after they are formed
external sexual organ through which sperm leave the body
the tip of the penis
a surgical procedure in which the foreskin is removed from the penis
one of two tubes tat carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Vas Deferens
the tube that passes from the bladder to the outside of the body, through which urine and, in males, semen, travel
in males, a pair of glands located near the bladder that provide 60 percent of the fluid to semen
Seminal Vesicles
in males, a pair of glands located at the base of the penis that provide 5 percent of the fluid to semen
Cowper’s Glands
in males, a gland located near the bladder that provides 35 percent of the fluid to semen
Prostate Gland
a liquid that contains sperm as well as fluids provided by the seminal vesicles, Cowper’s glands, and prostate gland
the ejection of semen from the penis
erection and ejaculation during sleep
Nocturnal Emission
when a person is unable to reproduce
a condition in which one of the testes does not descend into the scrotum at birth
Undescended Testes
occurs when part of the intestine pushes into the scrotum through a weak spot in the wall near the scrotum
Inguinal Hernia
the release of one or more eggs from an ovary
small tubes that carry the released eggs from the ovaries
Fallopian Tubes
a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located between the two ovaries and behind the urinary bladder
narrow base of the uterus that expands for birth
birth canal that is a hollow, muscular passage leading from the uterus to the outside of the body
the process during which an egg matures and is released and the uterus prepares to receive it
Menstrual Cycle
the lining of the uterus
the discharge of blood and tissue
PMS- discomfort experienced before the menstrual period that is marked by nervous tension, mood swings, headaches, bloating, and is believed to be caused by a dramatic change in hormone levels
Premenstrual Syndrome
period of life in which the ovaries slow down their hormone production and no longer release mature eggs
a vaginal infection or irritation with symptoms such as a thick discharge, odors, vaginal itching, and a burning sensation during urination
a condition in which tissue from the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, in the pelvic cavity
a bacterial infection characterized by sudden high fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness, occurring chiefly among women who use tampons
Toxic Shock Syndrome
a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined under a microscope for signs of cancer
Pap Test
an X-ray of the breast that detects breast cancer
the passing on of biological characteristics from parent to child
tiny structures found within almost every cell that carry information about the characteristics you will inherit.
DNA- chemical substance that makes up chromosomes
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
a section of a chromosome that determines a singe trait
an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
Genetic Disorder
a genetic blood disorder that occurs most often among people of African descent and is characterized by red blood cells with an abnormal sickle shape
Sickle-Cell Disease
characterized by the lack of an important chemical in the brain
Tay-Sachs Disease
a rare metabolic disorder that can cause severe mental retardation in infants
a recessive disorder that occurs mainly among people of Caucasian descent in which the lungs and pancreas secrete abnormally thick mucus
Cystic Fibrosis
the gene for the disorder is found on a sex chromosome, usually the X chromosome
Sex-Linked Disorders
a condition in which the person lacks a protein needed for muscle function
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
person’s blood does not clot properly
a disorder that is the result of an extra chromosome (21)
Down Syndrome

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