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Micro- 1st test...history


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Who thought that diseases were transmitted by worms that were invisible to the naked eye...that were found in decaying bodies, meat, sour milk, and diahhrea?
Kircher's Theory-1658
Who gave us the term "cell"?
Hooke's term.
Who was raised in HOlland?
Who invented the first microscope?
Van Leeuwenhoek's greatest discovery.
What was the first microscope's RP?
200-300X = RP
Who coined the term "animacules?"
Van Leewenhoek's term
What are "animacules?
bacteria's first name.
What is Spontaneous Generation?
The process of living coming from the Dead.
What are some things that Van Leewenhoek discovered:
He discovered bacteria ("animacules"), myelin sheath, nuclei, and FIRST TELESCOPE (200-300x)
What is Abiogenesis?
Same As Spontaneous Generation: Living matter coming from non-living matter.
Who did the "fly experiment?"
Needham, Redi, and Spallanzani's experiment.
What did the "fly experiment" entail?
putting meat in a jar, with a cloth over it, and seeing if bacteria, or any other living things could grow from it. Sealing the jar from the outside air, and seeing if anything grew from it. Trying to prove Spontaneous Generation/abiogenesis
Who created the 1st vaccination?
Jenner's main discovery.
What was Jener's vaccination for?
Cowpox was the vacinia...if you had a vaccine of cowpox, then you were protected against SMALLPOX.
who had clear skin?
the milkmaids had this.
When did Jenner invent the first vaccination?
In 1796 Jenner invented it.
When did the controversey over Spontaneous Generation take place?
1740's to 1780's
What were the three main controversey's in the 1600-1800's?
The Controversey over Spontaneous Generation, the Controversey over Fermentation, and the Controversey over Germ Theory of Disease took place then.
Who was behind the controversey of Germ Theory of disease in 1859?
Semmelweis and Holmes.
What was the Theory of Germ Disease
That diseases were caused by germs...(duhh)
What was the Theory of Fermentation?
non-vital view (non-biological view)
and the vital view (biological view)
When was the contamination in Lonon wells?
Who discovered a solution to the problem of the London well's contamination?
John Snow discovered the solution.
What was the solution to the london well's contamination?
that there was poop in the wells, and everyone that got sick had the same plumbline. So, snow just re-directed their plumbline and got fresh water for them elsewhere...
Who is the father of Epidemiology?
John Snow is the father of this.
Where is the Pasteur Institute?
paris, France.
Who studied the Germ Theory of Disease?
What was Koch's main postulate?
The "Streak-Plate" method...zig-zag on agar.
What did Metchinikoff think that he discovered?
The main way that the body spreads a micro-organism...but really there were several ways...not just one.
How did Koch think that the body spread a Micro-organism?
Through Phagocytosis.
What nationality was Metchnikoff?
He was a Russian.
When was Koch's time.
Who all contributed to the Controversey of Spontaneous Generation?
Needham, Redi, Spellanzani, and later Pasteur.
What did Ivanowsky (Russ) and Yersin Beijerinck (Dutch) both discover?
they both discovered viruses.
Who was the first famous American Biologist?
Theobald Smith.
What is Theobald Smith known for?
vector + disease. ex: with "lime disease," the vector = a tick. (the causing factor)
Who discovered immunoglobulins? (protective-proteins in our blood?)(aka-anti-body against antigen)
Von Behring, and Kitasato
Who was the father of chemotherapy?
Erlich was the father of this.
How many tries did it take Erlich to find the cure for sipphylus?
it took him 606 times to find the cure for this.
Who is associated with "The Magic Bullet"?
Erlich is associated with this.
How did Erlich try to cure Sipphylus?
by going out and getting prostitutes...bringing them into his lab, and testing them. If they tested positive then they had this:
What is Lister famous for?
"Antisceptic Surgery"...he used phenol during surgery to sterilize the materials, and the hands of the surgeon.
What was one of the main downfalls about Phenol as a disinfectant??
it is caustic to the skin (burns the skin) ...patient would wake up from surgery with 2nd degree burns.
Before lister's time, many people died during or after surger due to infections...
50% of those who went into surgery.
Who shut down the military hospital?
Reed shut it down.
Who worked intensely with "yellow fever"
Reed worked with this disease.
Where does cervical cancer come from?
Chickens have this.
What does RSV stand for?
Rous Sarcoma Virus.
Who worked with RSV?
Rous worked with this virus.
Who worked with TMV? (tobacco-mosaic virus)
Ivanowsky worked with this virus.
Where can you find TMV?
this is found on tobacco leave
what does TMV stand for?
tobacco mosaic virus.
What main invention is Fleming known for?
Penicillin is what he is known for.
What is the derivative of Penicillin?
Penicillium notatum
Who discovered that lysosome is used for producing tears, and lubricating the eyes.
Fleming made this discovery about your eyes.
what does OIP stand for?
Obligate Intracellular Parasites
Can OIP replicate themselves?
Yes. these organisms can self-replicate.
Who came up with the first virus for DNA replication Polymer?
Kornberg came up with the virus for this.
What are Watson and Crick responsible for discovering?
These men are responsible for the double-helix, which led to DNA replication, translation, and transcription.
What are Roux and Yersin known for?
these men are known for a toxin called "yersinia"...aka "The Black Plague."

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