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biology ch 8


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Membrane-bound structures within eukaryotic cells.
Light-absorbing pigment in plants and some protists that is required for photosynthesis; absorbs most wavelengths of light except for green.
Chlorophyll-containing cell organelles found in the cells of green plants and some protists
capture light energy from the sun, which is converted into chemical energy in food molecules.
endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle in eukaryotic cells with a series of highly folded membranes surrounded in cytoplasm; can be rough or smooth.
Group of two or more tissues that perform complex activities within an organism.
Thin, solid protein fibers that provide structural support for eukaryotic cells.
cell theory
The theory that all living things are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms, and all cells come from preexisting cells
Long, hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubules; found on some cell surfaces; help propel cells and organisms by a whiplike motion.
In eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle; contains the cell's DNA and manages cell functions.
Hollow, thin, cylinders made of protein that provide structural support for eukaryotic cells
Basic unit of all organisms.
Clear fluid in eukaryotic cells that suspends the cell's organelles
site of many important chemical reactions.
plasma membrane
Serves as the boundary between the cell and its environment; allows materials such as oxygen and nutrients to enter and waste products to leave.
electron microscope
An instrument that uses a beam of electrons instead of natural light to magnify structures up to 500 000 times actual size.
Long, tangled strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus during interphase.
Organelles containing digestive enzymes that digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles and engulfed viruses and bacteria.
Membrane-bound, fluid-filled space within the cytoplasm of plant cells; temporarily stores food, enzymes, and wastes.
Organelle in eukaryotic cells with a flattened system of tubular membranes; modifies proteins and sends them to their appropriate destinations.
Nonmembrane-bound organelles in the nucleus where enzymes and other proteins are assembled.
Eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles that transform energy stored in food molecules into ATP; contains highly folded inner membrane that produces energy-storing molecules.
Organelle in eukaryotic cell nucleus that produces ribosomes.
compound light microscope
An instrument that uses visible light and a series of lenses to magnify objects in steps.
Unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, composed of prokaryotic cells; lack internal membrane-bound structures.
Cellular framework found within the cytoplasm; usually composed of microtubules and microfilaments.
Groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function.
Short, numerous, hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubules
move in a wavelike motion
aid in feeding and locomotion.
organ system
Group of organs that work together to perform a major life function
Unicellular or multicellular organisms, such as yeast, plants, and animals, composed of eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
organism that carries out its life processes within a single cell
cell wall
rigid structure outside plasma membrane of plants, fungi, most bacteria, and some protists
provides support and protection
Group of plant organelles used for storage of starches, lipids, or pigments.

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