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Medical Terminology 8


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antianxiety agents

anxiolytic agents

drugs used to reduce anxiety



impairment because of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstrated be an inability to use or comprehend words; occurs as a result of a stroke, head tr

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)


damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm

diskectomy or


removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously

huntington chorea

huntington disease (HD) 

hereditary diseaseof the CNS characterized by bizzare, involuntary body movements and progressive denentia

major depression

major depressive illness

clinical depression

major affective disorder

unipolar disrder 

a disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentratio, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest

manic depression

bipolar disorder 

an affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression



each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
absence seizure
seizre involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement; previously termed petit mal seizure
emotional feeling or mood
any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
Alzheimer's disease
disease of the structural changes in the brain resulting in a irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to the loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms and legs to the muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing, to total paralysis and death;
defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull; the most drastic neural tube defect usually results in stillbirth
Anorexia nervosa
a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat tat results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal. 
agent tht prevents or lessens convultions
agent that counteracts depression
lack of interest or display of emotion
inability to judge the form of an object by touch
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AHDH)
a dysfunction characterized by consistet hyperactivity distractability and lack of control over impulses with interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work.
a developmental disability commonly appearing during the first three years of life resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything be
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardian muslce, and varios glands
Babinski sign
pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated the the toes dorsiflex
behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
portion of the cns contained within the cranuim
region of the brain that serves as a relay b/w the cerebru, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and the medulla oblongata
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomitting, use of laxatives of excessive exercise.
carotid endarterectomy
incision and coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage cause by the buildup of artherosclerotic plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke
a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
cebrebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in the blood vessel of the brain
Central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobeof the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of the skeletal muscles
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
cerebral angiogram
x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lipid buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordnation
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma-like clear fluid circulation in and around the brain and spinal cord
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosm; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones the underlie
treatment with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow Coma Scale
computed tomography (CT) of the head
computed tomographic (x-ray) images of the head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
incision into the skull to approach the brain
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary muscle contractions after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive findings are either no relfex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus
a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose
a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
a developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words sentences or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self expresssion
a restless, dissatisfied mood
a milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat patients with severe depression.
electroenchephalogram (EEG)
record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain; used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
eletrodiagnostic procedures
diagnostic procedures used to evaluate the function of the nervous system by recording the electrical signals produced in the brain spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
inflammation of the brain
endovascular neurosurgery

minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disorders within blood vessels of the neck, brain, and spinal cord using specialized catheters inserted percutaneously into the femoral artery, and guided by angiographic imaging to the treat

disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent seizures
an exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
evoked potentials
record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditor, visual, and sensory pathway disorders; also used to monitor the neurologic function of patients during surgery
extracranial MRA
magnetic resonace image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
deep grooves in the brain
flaccid paralysis
defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
generalized anxiety disorder
the most common anxiety disorde, characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable, worry about everyday problems; affects the ability to relax or concentrate, but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms incl
tumor of glial cells graded to degree of malignancy
grandiose delusion
a person's false belief that he or she possess great wealth, intelligence, or power
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
a false perception of the senses for with there is no reality; most commmonly hearing or seeing things
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
paralysis on one side of the body
herniated disc or disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression of the nerve root
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized be painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilatera; also known as shingles
abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain as a result of development anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
agent that induces sleep
a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary.
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
the formation of thoughts or ideas, such as suicidal ideation (thoughts of suicide)
intracranial MRA
magnetic resonace image of th head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
Light Therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as to obtain CSF for testing; also called a spinal tap
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels to detect pathologic conditions, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and the arachnoid mater
benign tumor of the coverins of the brain
inflammation of he meninges
Mental retardation
a condition of sub average intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or less resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities.
use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
migraine headache
paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, vomiting, lasing several hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
multiple sclerosis (MS)
disease of the CNS characterized by the demyelination of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
inflammation of the spinal cord
x-ray of the spinal cord obtained after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake 
neural tube defects
congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tub, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
pain along the course of a nerve
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
surgical repair of  nerves
a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions. Can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life. For example, the thought that a door is not locked, causing repetitive checking to make sure it i
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
panic disorder
a disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including  physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack (rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness) with a general sense of loss of control or feelin
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
paralysis from the waist down
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch 
Parkinson's disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamin; characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements; usually occurs later in life
partial seizure
seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain and spinal cord
persecutory delusion
a person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with the intent to harm
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; name foe the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (fear of the marketplace) claustrophobia, and acrophobia.
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
inflammationinvolving two or more nerve, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as a lack of thiamine
recording of various aspects of sleep (e.g. eye and muscle movements, respiration, and EEG patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
positron-emission tomography (PET)
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produces images of the brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, a
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience injury or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistet thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident or natur
a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patient individually or in a group employing specific actions or techniques.
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses (tropo= a turning)
paralysis of the four limbs
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede the proliferation of malignant cells
x-ray machine
reflex testing
test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include distortions of normal function such as disorganized though, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior, flat affect, apat
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
seasonal affective disorder
an affectivedisorder marked bu episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and that remit in the spring
agent that has a calming effect and quiets nervousness
sudden, transient, disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses; may or may not be associated with convulsions
sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after the administration of radioactive isotopes
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessasion that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
spastic paralysis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
spinal bifida
defect the development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges (meningocele) or of the meninges and spinal cord ( meningomyelocele); considered to be the most common neural tube de
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebr; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and body
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
spinal fusion
stereotactic or stereotaxic frame
mechanical device used to localize a point in space, targeting a precise site
stereotactic or stereotaxic radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions using multiple, precise, external radiation beams focused on the target with the aid of a stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable tumors and other lesions
Substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal or social dysfunction identified by the abused substance such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid abuse, and polysubstance abuse.
shallow grooves that separate gyri
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
tactile stimulation
evoking a response by touching
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
thought disorder
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
tonic-clonic seizure
stiffening-jerking ; a major motor seizure involving all muscle group; previously termed grand mal seizure
transcranial Doppler sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in the diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
transient ischemic atack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually, caused by a partial occlusion tat results in temporary neurologic deficit; often precedes a CVA
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
vertebral lamina
the posterior portion of the vertebral arch

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