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Health Psychology1


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Types of Neurons
Sensory: Carry information coming from the environment.
Motor: Transmit instructions to the muscles and glands of the body.
Interneurons: Transmit signals from one neuron to another.
Basic Anatomy of a Neuron
Axon: Conducts its signal/ its neural impulse.
Dendrite: receive stimulation from other cells
Cell Body: contains the nucleus and metabolic mechanism of the cell.
Synapse: the junction between the axon and adjoining dendrite.
Neurotransmitter: chemical messengers crossing the synaptic cleft and binding to receptor sites on the receiving neuron’s dendrite; unlock channels for charged atoms to flow into neuron alerting its readiness to generate a neural impulse.
Somatic vs. Autosomatic
Somatic vs. Autonomic Nervous System: Voluntary; nerves that carry messages from the eyes, ears, and other sense organs to the CNS to muscles and glands / nerves that link the CNS with the heart, intestines, and other internal organs.
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous System:
Consists of groupings of neuron cell bodies/ganglia along spinal cord connecting to internal organs; fight or flight; not closely linked ganglia and act independently; opposite effects.
Brain stem
oldest and most central region (medulla, pons, reticular formation)
brainstem region controlling heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular formation
network of neurons from brainstem involved in alertness and arousal.
brain’s sensory switchboard; located on top of brainstem routing messages to the cerebral cortex.
located at the rear; coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
two clusters of neurons in the limbic system that are linked to emotion esp. aggression.
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Parietal Lobe
Sensory Cortex
Center of the cortex receiving visual info from skin and body.
Sensory Cortex: On the edge of the frontal lobe in parietal; processes sensations.
Temporal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
1) Auditory info from ear projects here.
2) Behind forehead involved in reasoning, planning and controlling body movement.
Motor Cortex
Back of frontal lobes in front of sensory cortex; vol. movements.
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.

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