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Apologia Biology 2nd Ed., Module 2


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Aerobic organism
An organism that requires oxygen
Anaerobic organism
An organism that does not require oxygen
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer
The DNA of a bacterium that is coated with several hard layers
Exponential growth
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population
Logistic Growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources
An organism that feeds on a living host
An organism that causes disease
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code
An organism that feeds on dead matter
Steady state
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
The transfer of a "naked" DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell
plasma membrane
To negotiate what materials pass into and out of the cell
To move the bacterium from place to place
To adhere to surfaces as well as to ward off infection-fighting agents
To store the information needed to make an organism a living thing
To hold the DNA and ribosomes in place
Cell wall
To keep the interior of the cell together and to hold the cell's shape
To grasp onto surfaces or another bacterium during conjugation
To make proteins
What is the bacterial shape?
1. Coccus
2. Bacillus
3. Spirillum
What bacteria is...
1. Spherical
2. Rod-shaped
3. Helical
Ideal conditions for most bacteria to grow and reproduce (5)
Moisture, moderate temperatures, nutrition, darkness, proper amount of oxygen
To reduce the chance of bacterial infection in food you can...(5)
1. Heat the food so that most bacteria die and then seal it away from fresh air.
2. Dehydrate the food.
3. Freeze the food.
4. Pasteurize the food.
5. Keep it in the refrigerator.
a general term that applies to all members of kingdom Monera
binary fission
asexual reproduction in bacteria
Clostridium Botulinum
can cause botulism
caused by undercooked eggs and poultry
Escherichia coli
pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains live in your gut

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