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psych test 3


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persistance of learning over time
getting info into the "system"
retaining info for a period of time
getting info back out
three stage processing model (Atkinson & Shriffin
sensory memory, short-term memory/working memory, long-term memory
1. sensory memory
record info as sensory input
2. short term memory/working memory
processed in short term memory
3. long-term memory
encode info and store in long term memory to later be retrieved
information processing models
depends on stage and depth of storage
parallel distributed processing
info doesn't flow, it is connected by processing units
how we encode
no conscious effort like driving, do without thinking
effortful processing
requires thought, like names and phone numbers
conscious repetition
serial position
remembering the first and last in a series
amount learned = amount of time spent memorizing
spacing effect
retain information when rehearsed and spaced out over time
three ways we encode verbal information
visual (image), acoustic (sound), semantic (meaning)
which is best for memory?
self-referencing effect
"relevant to me"
how to encode visual information using mnemonic devices
loci, peg words, chunking
peg words
one is a bun
grouping items together to remember (phone number) more than 7 items
iconic storage
sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
sensory memory of auditory stimuli
limits of short term memory
better for numbers and sounds than letters and images
how does STM differ from LTM
long term is better for letters and images
how is STM different from LTM?
long term retains memory better
long term potentiation (LTP)
increase of seratonin, more efficient transmission of signals from one neuron to another; strengthening of potential neuronal firing as a result of learning/memory
flashbulb memories
clear memories of emotionally significant moments/events
implicit (procedural) memory
retention without conscious recollection (driving)
explicit (declarative) memory
memory of facts we consciously know (9/11)
hippocampus' role
look it up
recall (retrieval)
retrieve info not in our concious awareness
recognition (retrieval)
identifying info previously learned
relearning (retrieval)
measure assessing amount of time saved when learning info again
web of associations
memory stored based on associations with that information
which types of retrieval are we better at?
recognizing and relearning than recalling
to retrieve info, first identify associated info to lead you there
context effects
returning to original context in which we experienced an event
state-dependent memory
recall info best in same emotional/physiological state as when info was learned
ways we forget
absent-mindedness, transcience, blocking, repression
not paying attention
unused info fades over time
can't access stored info
basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoguhts/feelings/memories from consciousness
ways we distort info that affect memory
misattribution, suggestibility, bias
confusing the soure of info
lasting effects from misinformation
recollections affected by belief systems
what has Loftus' work demonstrated about recovered memory?
look it up
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
influence of culture on definition of intelligence
look it up
general intelligence
(g-factor) we have specific abilities/aptitudes (verbal intell., spacial ability, reasoning ability)
theories around multiple intelligences
savants are super intelligent in one specific subject
Gardner's areas of intelligence
look it up
Sternberg triarchic theory
look it up
analytical intelligence
academic problem solving
creative intelligence
adapting to new situations and developing new ideas
practical intelligence
completing daily tasks, multiple solutions, less defined
emotional intelligence
ability to percieve emotion (in faces)/understand it (predict)/manage emotions (know when and how to expres) and use creative thinking
creativity in relation to intelligence
expertise, imaginative thinking skills, ventursome personality, intrinsic motivation, creative environment
common componants of defining mental retardation
limited mental ability indicated by an IQ of 70 or lower; varies from mild to profound
need or desire that serves to energize behavior and direct to a goal; what drives us to do things out of the ordinary
extrinsic motivation
motivation is external
intrinsic motivation
a person performs an action because the act is satisfying
four perspectives on motivation
instinct, drive-reduction, arousal theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs
instinct theory
evolutionary - behaviors are instincts and are fixed patterns throughout a species; reflexes such as rooting and sucking
due to physiological needs, drives us to fulfill needs to homeostasis; incentives
arousal theory
recognition of the need for stimulation/arousal
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
(top) self actualizing needs; esteem needs; belongingness and love needs; safety needs; physiological needs (bottom)
Yerkes-Dodson Law
relationship between arousal and effect of performance shown in upside-down U graph
why do we eat (physiological and psychological)
for energy, cultural background, formed habits,
how do eating habits develop
personal experience, modeling
anorexia nervosa
normal weight person diets obsessively
bullemia nervosa
binge-purge cycle
influences on motivations for sex
biological, psychological, cultural
biological motivation for sex
nature's way of making us reproduce
psychological motivation for sex
hormones direct physical development and activate sexual behavior
cultural motivation for sex
established rules/guidelines
Human Sexual Response Cycle
1) excitement 2)plateau 3)orgasm 4)resolution (refractory in males)
motivations for sex
enhancement, intimacy, coping, self-affirmation, partner approval, peer approval
emotional satisfaction
emotional closeness and physical pleasure
negative emotions
disappointment, reassurance of attractiveness
partner approval
desire to please or appease partner
peer approval
impress friends, be part of group, conform
similarities and differences in men/women in sexual motivation
look it up
origins of sexual orientation/homosexuality
evolutionarily - we look for partners to successfully reproduce; society and culture influence attractiveness; family history and home environment; biological factors
what humans need in their sense of belonging
social bonds boods survival rate; relationships/bonds give us true sense of happiness; we judge ourselves through connectedness; enhance health
motivation to work
meet need for survival/safety; engage in something meaningful; when work engages skill, boosts sense of self esteem/competance/well being
what do industrial-organizational psychologists do?
focus on measuring psychological qualities that spur achievement/success/environmental conditions; seek to understand why a person thrives/wilts at a job
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events (stressors) that we appraise as threatening/challenging; the physical, emotional, cognitive, behavioral response to threatening/challenging events
stressful things
minor or major events, imaginary events, things as a threat, major life events (good and bad)
effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors
effect of positive events that are demanding
optimal amount of stress
look it up
physiological response to stress
autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nervous system; stress=fight or flight reaction; HR up, Digestion down, energy up, respiration up, hormones up
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
1)Alarm - body reacts to stressor (sympathetic), adrenal hormones, HR, BP, Bloodsugar, energy 2)Resistance - body settles and fights stressor 3) Exhaustion - body's resources are depleted
affect on immune system
stress=infection to immune system; activates IS & HR & blood sugar, depletes body's resources
Type A personality
competitive, impatient, higher risk for heart disease
Type B personality
noncompetitive, easygoing, relaxed
Type C personality
pleasant, difficulty expressing emotions esp. negative, at higher risk for cancer
problem-focused coping vs. emotion-focused coping
alleviate stress directly, changing the stressor/interaction with stressor vs. alleviate stress by avoiding/ignoring stressor and attending to emotional needs related to stress
attitude affect on stress
good attitude benfits health, blood pressure, longevity of life
looks for positive outcomes, perceives more control, enjoys better health, less fatigue, fewer aches/pains, outlive pessimists
expect the worst to happen
social support affect on stress
friends, family, neighbors, coworkers, peers give help=advice, physical/monetary support, info/education, emotional, love&affection, companionship, happiness&health, calms cardivascular
coping techniques
exercise, biofeedback, relaxation
heart and lung fitness, releases endorphines, reduces stress/depression/anxiety
records, amplifies, returns info and enables control of physiological responses
increased breathing, closing eyes, focus on something calm
maladaptive ways to cope with stress
smoking, drinking, overeating, procrastinating, nail biting, etc
social psychology
scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by real/imagined/implied prescence of others
process of explaining one's and other's behaviors of either external or interal cause
situational attribution
assume cause of behavior is external
dispositional attribution
assume cause of behavior is within the individual
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers to underestimate impact of a situation and overestimate impact of personal disposition; look at other's behavior and think about what you'd do
feelings based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond a certain way to objects/people/events
affect of attitudes on behaviors
ideas, people, objects, situations, opinions, beliefs, biases
four ways attitudes are formed
direct contact, direct instruction (mother to child), interaction with others, vicarious learning (observational learning)
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
tendency for people who comply with a small request to later comply with a larger one
how are behaviors/attitudes affected by taking on social roles
look it up
stanford prison experiment
cognitive dissonance
doing/saying things that don't maych our idea of ourselves=emotional discomfort
affect of cognitive dissonance on attitude
we adjust our attitudes to reconcile feeling of dissonance
adjusting one's behavior/thinking to coincide with a group standard; increases when we feel incompetant/insecure/admiring group status
chameleon effect
natural instinct to mimic behavior of those around us; those who are empathetic mimic more and are more liked
normative social influence
going along with a group to fit in/not cause a stir
informational social influence
if everyone else answers something, i "must" be wrong
we change our behavior at the command of authority
Stanley Milgrim's study on obedience
electric shock experiment
personality traits that predict obedience
factors that influence willingness to be obedient
when there's no role model for defiance, person giving orders is close by and legitimate authority figure supported by prestigious institution
effect of Zimbardo/Milgrim studies on research experiments today
disclaimers, ability to leave, post-test briefing required
social facilitation
positive influence of others on performance; if task is perceived as easy, the prescence of others improves performance, if it seems diffucult prescence of others decreases performance
social impairment
negative influence of others on performance
social loafing
a lazy person who does not do well in a group setting but does well alone
a group experience arouses people and makes them anonymous and feel less self-restrained
negative attitude held by a person about members of a social group; can be overt and subtle
when prejudicial attitudes cause members of a group to be treated differently than others
in-groups vs. out-groups
majority vs. minority
target of negative emotions of members of in-group toward members of an outgroup
brown-eyed/blue-eyed study
in second grade class, teacher separated eye color and treated one group better
any physical/verbal behavior intended to hurt/destroy
three levels of biological influence on aggression
genetic, neural, biochemical
psychological factors that influence aggression
exposure to aversive stimuli, being blocked from a goal (frustration-aggression principle)
three factors creating attraction
proximity, attractiveness, similarity
passionate love
aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
compassionate love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
if many people are witnessing an event, likelihood to assume someone else will call for help is high (diffusion of responsibility)
three factors that influence motivation to help
notice the event, interpret it as an emergency, assume responsibility for helping
Kitty Genovese case
look it up

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