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POLIOMYELITIS

Terms

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History
Distant history unknown
Epidemiology (Stats)
nearly eradicated in US
worldwide: 2,000 in 2005; rising again
Epidemiology (Who and Where)
strikes children predominantly
Nigeria, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan currently
Epidemiology (Forms)
mild form – flu-like symptoms
severe form – paralytic; esp. spine, shoulders, hips, knees, feet; painful
Post Polio Syndrome (PPS)
recently diagnosed as re-occurrence of some polio symptoms/signs in 25-50% of patients; progressive muscle deterioration
Etiology
Poliovirus
Poliovirus
small RNA virus -attacks anterior horn of spinal cord – affects motor nerves
Transmission
fecal-oral route -present in water, vehicles; swimming pools, food, hands, fomites contaminated with feces
virus is non-enveloped – more resistant to acid, harsh chemical environments; makes transmission easier
Pathogenesis
Ingested viruses adhere to throat, GI tract lining, infect cells there; multiply, esp. in
tonsils, lymph nodes; viruses shed intro throat, digestive tract, feces; leak into blood
and travel to central nervous system, usually attacks ant.(motor) horn of spinal cord.
Treatment of infection:
TLC, pain relief, PT to reduce muscle weakness
Prophylaxis
vaccine now only IPV is recommended, as complications may arise from OPV in immune-compromised patients

Deck Info

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