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blood and cirulation


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What are arterioles? what do they do?
they are small muscular branch of arteries. Whn they contract they increase resistance to blood flow and blood pressure in the arteries increases.
what is the atreial duct what does it do?
A fetal vessel that connects the left pulmonary artery with the decending aorta that normaly becomes the arterial legiment after birth.
what is the artia?
the upper chamber of the heart
what is the atrioventicular nobe?
it conducts tissue at the bottom of the right atrium in which electrical impulses pass to reach the ventricles.
what are capillaries?
tiny blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body.
what is cholesterol?
a type of fat produced by the liver and found in the blood. used to make hormones and build cell wall.
define diastole?
preiod heart muscle relax
define diastolic blood preesure?
the lowest blood pressure measure in the arteries, which occurs between heart beats
what is a heart attack?
occurs when one of the more regions of the heart experiences a severe prolonged decrease in oxygen supply cause by a blockage in blood flow to heart muscle
Define hypertension?
a condition present when bloof flows through a blood vessel with a force greater than normal.
define hypotension?
low blood pressure or a sudden drop in blood pressure
define lacteal
a small lyphatic duct associated with a villus of the small intestine
define lymph
a clear colourless fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system lymph fills the tissue spaces of the body.
what are lymph nodes?
mass of lymphoid tissue located along the coarse of a lymphatice vessel
what is nadel tissue?
tissue from the sinoatrial node and the atrioventicular node and bundle.
what are the nadel tissue branches composed of?
a dense network of purkinjie fibers.
define oval opening?
in the fetus, a shunt for the flow of blood from the right atrium to the laft atrium and in that way passing the lungs.
what is the pacemaker node?
small region of neuromuscular tissue that initiates the heart beat.
how does the placenta form?
from chorion and the uterine wall.
what does the placenta do?
allows the embryo and than the fetus to aquire nutrients and rid its wastes.
define pulmonary circulation?
circulatory pathway that consits of the pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteris and pulmanary viens.
what does the pulmonary circit do?
it takes o2- poor blood from the heart to the lungs and than o2- rich blood from the lungs to the heart.
define septum?
the muscular wall that seperates the left and right sides of the heart.
what is the spleen and where is it located?
its located behinde the stomach and contains white blood cells and stores blood.
what is a stroke?
it occurs when blood flow is interrupted to part of the brain and results in death of brain cells.
what is systemic circulation?
the part of the circlatory system that serves body parts other the gas exchanging surface in the lungs.
define systole?
contraction period of a heart during the cardiac cycle
define systolic blood pressure?
arterial blood pressure during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle.
define thoracic duct?
The major lymphatic vessel of the body that drains lymph from the entire body, except for the upper right quadrant, and returns it to the left
where is the thymus gland located?
its located along the trachea behinde the sternum.
what does the thymus gland do?
it is involved in the maturation of t lymphocytes.
what typ of hormone does the thymus gland secrete and what does this hormone do?
Thymosins which aid the maturation of t cells and perhaps stimulate immune cells in general.
what is the umbilical artery?
fetal blood vessel that travels to and from the placenta.
what is the venous duct?
fetal connection between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cavae
where does the arteries and atreioles carry the blood?
from the heart to tissues
where do veins and venules carry the blood?
from the capillaries to the heart.
what type of walls do arteries have wgat are they composed of?
they have thick walls composed of elastic and muscular fibers.
what do arterioles branch off to?
small vessels called capillaries
what type of wall do capillaries have?
very narrow microscopic tubes which have a wall that is one cell layer thick.
what is traded across the walls of the capillary?
gas and small molecules
what encircles the entrance to each capillary?
sphincter muscle
why do the sphincter muscles close?
to allow less or more blood flow to that area as needed.
what do venules drain and what do they form?
they drain blood from capillaries than join to form a vein
what do veins have?
what do valves do when open? when closed?
they allow blood to flow only toward the heart when they are open when closed the prevent backflow
what is the major portion of the heart?
what is the myocardium mostly composed of?
cardiac muscle
what type of tissue cover the heart?
epithelial and fibrous called pericardium
what is the name of the sac that the heart is located in?
pericardial sac
what type of fluid does the sac contain?
lubricating liquid
what are the two places the heart pumps blood to?
lungs and the rest of the body.
why is the left ventricle bigger than the right?
right pumps to lungs, left pumps to rest of the bod.
what is the name of the valve found between the atria and venticulars?
atrioventicular valves
what do valves do?
they control the flow of blood between the chambers and prevent backflow
what valves seperate the right atrium and the right ventricle?
tricuspid valve
what is the atrioventicular valve found between the left atrium and left ventricle called?
bicuspid valve
what are the chorde tendinae?
they suppourt valves and prevent them from inverting
what are the chorde tendinae located?
they are attached to muscular projections in the ventricular wall.
what does each ventricule have?
semilunar valve and attached to blood vessel.
what does the right have and why?
pulmonary semilunar valve becuse it pumps blood out through the pulmonary artery
what does the left ventricle have?
aortic semilunar valve pumps blood through aorta
what is the path of blood flow through out the heart?
1) blood flow that is deoxygenated enters the right atrium through the superior and inferio vena cavae. 2) the right atrium contracts forcing blood through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle 3)the right ventricle contracts sending blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary trunk. 4) the pulmonary trunk divides into the pulmonary arteris which take deoxygenated blood to lungs. 5) at lungs carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood and oxygen diffuses into it. Now its oxygenated. 6) the oxygenated blood goes into the pulmonary viens which take ot to the left atrium. 7) the left atrium contracts forcing blood through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. 8) the left ventricle contracts forcing blood through the carotic semilunar valve and into the aorta 9( aorta divides into smaller arteries which carry blood to all the body tissues.
what are the two phases of a heart beat?
atria contract while ventricles relax ventricles contract while atria relax
what is the lub-dupp?
lub= when atrioventicular valves close Dupp= when the semilunar valves close
what is a heart murmur?
problem with valve closure
what is rheumatic fever?
caused by bacteria that cause a faulty valve.
what is systole ?
contraction of heart muscles.
what is diastole ?
relaxation of heart muscle
what controls the heartbeat?
nodal tissue which has characteristics of nerve and muscle.
what are the two nodal regions in the heart?
1) SA node 2) Av node
how does the sa node make the heartbeat?
by sending out a signal automatically to make the atria contract.
whaere is the sa node located?
located in the upper back wall of the right atrium.
what is another name for the sa node and why?
pacemaker because it keeps the beat regular.
If the sa node stops sending signals how can you fix this problem?
by implanting an artifical pacemaker which sends electrical signals to stabilize the heart rate
whaere is the av node located?
base of the right atrium near the septum
how does the av node work?
it gets signals from sa node it signals along fibers to the atria and av node. then the av node itself sends out a signal along the prukinjie fibers.they take the message to vantricles and cause them to contract.
what controls how fast the heartbeats?
the nervous control caused by the medula oblangata.
what factors determine the autonomic system and how fast the heart rate will be?
stress, oxygen levels and blood pressure.
what are the two parts of the cardiovascular systemic circuit?
1) pulmunary circuit 2) systemic circuit
what is the pulmonary circuit?
path pf blood from the heart through the lungs.
where does the deoxygenated blood from all tissues collect?
right atrium, is pumped to the right ventricle than sent to pulmonary trunk, which divides into pulmonary arteries which divides into arterioles of the lungs.
where do arterioles take blood to and what happens there?
take blood to pulmonary capillaries, this is where co2 AND O2 ARE EXCHANGED.
where does the pxygenated blood enter?
the pulmonary venules than the pulmonary viens and finally to the left atrium.
what does the systemic circuit include?
all blood vessels except those in the pulmonary ciruit.
how does the systemic curcuit take blood ?
from left ventricle through the tissue and organs of the body and back to the right atrium
in the systemic system what do veins carry? what do arteries cary?
veins=deoxygenated blood arteries=oxygenated blood
what do arteries branch off to and where are they located?
arteries branch off to aorta just above the semilunar valve and lie on the outside of the heart.
what is atherosclerosis?
is the hardening of the arteries caused by cholestrol plaque deposits.
what happens whaen a person ages to their arteries?
they become thicker less elastic and their calcium content increase.
what is coronary bypass surgery?
segments of leg viens are grafted between the aorta and coronary vessels in order to bypass a blockage.
what is a thrombus?
a stationary clot attached to an arterial wall slows the flow of blood
what is the embolus?
a thrombus that has become disloged and moves along with the blood. when the vessel narrows the embolous gets stuck and entirely blocks the flow of blood in a small vessel.
what are the varicose veins?
abnormal and irregular dialations in superficial viens especially in the lower legs.
how do varicose develop?
when the valves of the veins become weakend due to backward pressure of blood.
what are varicose viens called in the rectum?
what is phlebits?
inflammation of a vien, blood may clot
what is pulmonary embolism?
if embolism here winds up in the pulmonary arteriole blockage through circulation to the lungs happens.
what is the pulse?
the alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial all that can be found in the artery that runs near the surface of the body.
where can the pulse be felt?
redial arter= wrist corotid artery= neck
what is blood pressure?
the pressure of the blood against the wall of a vessel created by the pumping action of the heart
what is hypotension?
lower blood pressure than normal
what is hypertension?
higher blood pressure than normal
what is hypotension cause by?
plaque build up, diet and kidney.
what treats blood pressure?
beta bladers vascdilators diuretics
what do beta bladers do?
they prevent stimulation of autonomic nervous system.
what do vascdilators do?
prevent arteris from constricting
what do diuretics do?
they cause the kidney to excrete excess salts and fluids
what do you measure blood pressure with?
what are two dadal regions in the heart?
1)sa node 2) av node
how does the sa node make the heart beat?
by sending out a signal automatically to make atria contract
where is the sa node located?
located in the upper back wall of the right atrium
where is the av node located?
base of the right atrium near the septum
what controls how fast it goes?
nervous control caused by the medula oblongata.
what factors determine the automononic system and how fast the hear rate will be?
stree,oxygen levels and blood pressure
where does deoxygenated blood from all tissues collect?
right atrium is pumped to the right ventricle than sent to pulmonary trunk which divides into pulmonary arteries which divides into arteriole of lungs.
what is systolic blood pressure?
the highest arterial pressure reached during ejection of blood from the heart.
what is diastolic pressure?
lowest arterial pressure occurs when ventricles relax.
what is the resting period?
what does blood pressure account for?
blood in arteries and artierioles
what do skeletal muscle contractions account for ?
flow of blood in the venules and veins
when does the heart develop in the fetus?
3rd week
what are the four structures of the fetus?
oval opening arterial duct umbilical arteries and vieans venous duct
arterial duct define ?
connects pulmonary artery and aorta.its function is to bypass the pulmonary circuit.
what is the path of blood through the fetus?
1) begin with blood collecting in the right atrium 2) blood goes through right atrium through oval opening plus into right ventricle through atrioventicular valve. 3)right ventricle to pulmonary artery. most blood goes to atrieal duct to aorta. 4) aorta to tissue.umbilical arteris lead to placenta where exchange of gases and nutrients take place. 5) umbilical vein carriess 02 rich blood. it enters the venous duct, passes through the liver 6)venous duct joins with inferior venae cava(mixes deoxygenated blood)this goes bakck into heart.
what does blood maintain?
what is blood ?
a liquid connective tissue
what are the bloods functions?
1) Transport (gases, wastes and nutrients) 2) clotting (seal injuries) 3) infection fighting
what are the two main parts of blood ?
plasma formed proteins
what is plasma?
it contains water organic and inorganic substances such as proteins, gases, salts nutrients and wastes. known as liquid part.
what are formed elements?
solid part consits of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
define red blood cells ?
transport oxygen and are formed in the bone marrow.
what are white blood cells?
fight infection in bone marrow and lymphoid tissue.
what are platelets?
function in blood clotting.
what do plasma protiens do?
transport many molecules.
what two things do blood proteins contribute to?
viscocity osmotic pressure, which maintains blood volume
what does hemoglobin carry and what is it made out of?
it carries 02 its made of 4 amino acid chains each chain has iron-containing heme group which attaches to oxygen.
why hemoglobin is an excellant carrier of oxygen?
because it weakly binds with oxygen in cool, neutral conditions in the lungs and easily gives 02 up in warmer and acidic conditions.
what colour is oxyhemoglobin?(why)
it is bright red because it bonds to oxygen.
what colour is reduced heoglobin?(why)
dark purple because it has no oxygen
what binds to hemoglobin better than oxygen?
carbon monoxide
where does hemoglobin pick up 02?
where does hemoglobinrelease 02?
where do co2 and wastes go?
diffuse out of cell
what does blood pressure do?
pressure of blood in blood vessel would tend to push molecules out of blood.
what is osmotic pressure?
is the opposing force trying to force molecules into blood
what is higher of the arterial side of the capillary and what happens?
blood pressure is higher than osmatic preesure and therefore water, oxygen and glucose tend to leave the blood stream.
what happens at the venous side of the capillary?
osmatic pressure is higher than blood pressure and therfore water, amonia carbon dioxide enter the blood stream.
when reduced hemoglobin picks up co2 what does it form?
what is most c02 transported as?
bicarbonate ion
how does the bicarbonate ion form?
its formed after co2 combines with water forming carbonic acid which dissociates
what is the bicarbonate ion equation?
co2 + h20 <------> h2co3<---------> h+ +hco3-
what is the enzyme called that speeds up the reaction?
carbonic anhydrase
what could the h+ in the reaction due to prevent it what would happen?
it would wreck havoc on blood ph. to prevent this h= is picked up by globin portion of hemoglobin so that ph is maintained.
what is eosinphils?
phagocytizes and destroy antigen-antibody complexes.
what are basophils?
congregate in tissues and release histamine when stimulated
where are granulocytes formed?
red bone marrow
what are granules of a neutrophil?
what do agranulocytes include?
lymphocytes and monocytes
what is agranulocytes structure?
have no granules and have a circular or indented nucleus
where are agranulocytes produced?
lymphoid tissue in the spleen,,lymph nodes and tonsils.
what do type b lymphocytes produce and where?
antibodies in blood and lymph.
what do type t lymphocytes do?
kill viruses containing cells
what do white blood cells depend on?
what are neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils?
what does phagocytic mean?
enguf invaders at the site of infection.
what is the smallest white blood cell?
what happens to the lymphocytes when microbes invade the body?
lympocytes begin to multiply and bcome transformed plasma cells
where are lymphocytes and monocytes produced?
lymphatic tissue in spleen and lymph nodes.
what are red blood cells cosist of ?
small biconcave disk shaped cells with nuclei
what are red blood cells made by?
stem cells in bone marrow
what happens duing maturation process?
red blood cells lose nucleus and get much smaller.
what do oxygen levels determine?
rate of red blood cell formation
wat happens when oxygen is low what do the kidneys produce to make more red blood cells ?
reanal erythropoietic factor.when combined with globin.
how long do re blood cells live for and where are they destroyed?
120 days and destroyed in liver and spleen.
what happens to the red blood cells iron and heme?
the iron is recovered from the hemoglobin and sent to the bones. heme portion is chemically degraded and is excreted by the liver in the bile as bile pigment.
what happens after an injury occurs?
coaglution or clotting
what does coaluation require?
1)platelets 2) prothrombin 3)fibrinogen
what do platelets result from and where do they form ?
large cells called megakaryoccytes in red bone marrow.
what are fibrinogen an prothrombin? why are they manufactured and deposited?
they are plasma proteins manufactured and deposited in the blood by the liver.
what is required for production of prothrombin?
vitamin k.
what do lymphocytes produce and how?
antibodies in response to invading antigens.
what is an antigen?
stimulates the release of antibodies.
how does antigen fit antibody/
like a lock in key.
what do blood vessels and tissues release when they get rupted by injury?
what does bradyknin do?
1) initiates nerve impulses results in pain 2) causes ,ost cells to release histamine
what do histamine and bradyknin do together?
they cause a capillary to become elarged and permable.
what does the enlargment and permability of the cell allow it to do?
enlargement = skin reddness permability= allows proteins and fluids to escape so that sweeling results.
when neutophils and monocytes are amoeboid what does that mean?
neutrophils and monocytes can change shape and squeeze through enlarged capillary walls to enter tissue fluid.
when monocytes become macrophages what happens ?
they become large cells that are great at phagocytosis and also stimulate release of white blood cells .
what is pus? what does it contain?
a thick yellowish, containing dead and living leukocytes, dead cels, tissues and bacteria.
what is fetal erythroblastasis?
if mother becomes pregnant with another rh+ baby rh antibodies may cross over placenta and destroy babys rbc.
rhogam what is it what does it do?
injection kills baby's left over rbc.
how does clot formation occur? what do palaltes do first/
1) platelets clump site of the punture and partially seal the leak.
what is the second step in clot formation what do platelets and injured tissue release?
release prothrombin to thrombin calcium ions are necessary.
what is the thrid step of clotting?what does thrombin do and serves?
it acts as an enzyme and serves two short amino acid chains from each fribinogen molecule.
what the fibrinogen chains form?
fibrin by comming to join end to end
what does fibrin entangle? where? what do they form?
red cells and platelets, in the damged area, frame work of clot
why does clotting take place faster at warm temperature than cold?
it is controlled by enzymes
what is serum?
is plasma from which frbrigon has been removed from
what does plasmin do?
destroys the fibrin network and restores the fluidity at plasma
what is the bodys first defense against invading pathegens?
what is the bodies second line of defense?
white blood cells and gama globulins
are white blood cells larger than red blood cells?

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