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HDFS Test Chap 1-4


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Biological Sysem
All those processed necessary for the physical functioning of the organism. Sensory capacities, motor responses, and the workings of the respiratory, endocrine, and circulatory systems are all biological processes
Societal System
All the processes through which a person becomes integrated into society.
Life Expectancy
The number of years of life, based on average length of life for a given population.
Psycholgoical System
Includes those mental processes central to the person's ability to make meaning of experiences and take action.
Psychosocial Approach
Seeks to understand the internal experiences that are the product of interactions among biological, psychological, and societal processes.
A characteristic that buffers the negative effects ofo poverty.
Five major Assumptions guiding the focus of the textbook
1. Growth occurs at every period of life, from conception through very old age. 2. Individual lives show continuity and change as they progress through time. 3. We need to understand the whole person because we function in an integrated manner. 4. Behavior must be interpreted in the context of relevent settings and personal relationships. 5. People contribute actively to their development.
Identify the three major systems that interact to produce human experience.
Biological, psychological, and societal
How is the study of life span human develpment related to life expectancy?
the study of life span human development is dependent upon life expectancy, a framework for timing about stages or periods of life
T or F, The primary purpose of making meaning of events is to increase longevity.
T or F, Persistent poverty during infancy and childhood are often predictors of resiliency in adulthood.
Scientific Process
A method for systematically building a body of information and evaluating the accuracy of information
Qualitative Approach
Emphasizes individual perspectives and a process to understand a unique event
Process of choosing participants for a research study
Operational definition
Translation of an abstract concept into a procedure that is observable and measurable
Assumption that research findings are applicable to a population.
Positivist approach
Applies statistical analysis to predict outcomes and determine causal relationships
Research design
Components of a research project that includes sample, methods, how often data will be collected, and use of data analysis techniques
Research methods
Various techniques and strategies used to gather data.
Principles of morality that guide conduct.
Statistically significant
An observation that has a low probability of occurring by chance
relatinship among variables based on strength and direction
Categories and definitions that are assumed to be meaningful from a positivistic perspective are more when viewed throuigh a qualitative perspective
A positivistic approach...
uses hypotheses to guide the research process
The generalizability of the findings research are usually limited to...
the sample and population from which the sample is drawn
Which sampling methods should one use to ensure ones sample is representative of the population?
Random and stratified
What are the advantages of the experiemental method?
It permits the researcher to isolate and control specific variables. it allows one to compare the impact of specific treatments. It leads to statements about causal relationships.
This design involves repeated observations of the same group of people at different times
Why is the cohort sequential design an improvement over the cross-sectional design?
It follows the same individuals over repeated observations across time.
Psychosocial theory
A theory of human development which proposes that cognitive, emotional, and social growth are a product of the interaction between social expectations at each life stage and the competencies people bring to each life challenge.
Psychosocial crisis
A predictable tension between personal competencies and social expectations
Prime adaptive ego qualities
Mental states that emerge in the positive resolution of each psychosocial crisis which form a basic orientation toward the interpretation of life experiences.
Radius of significant relationships
The range of important interpersonal bonds through which social expectations reach the person and from which the persondereves essential social support
A logical system of concepts that provides a framework for organizing and understanding observations
Central process
refers to the exquistion of new skills and successful coping mechanisms in order to resolve a psychosoical crisis
What is a strength of psychosocial theory?
Psychosocial crises allow for the examination of the tension between individual and society
What phenomena is psychosocial theory trying to explain?
Changes in self-understanding, social relationships, and worldview
Natural Selection
A process that accounts for how species change in response to changing environmental conditions over long periods of time
Psychosocial evolution
The creation of new information and methods for passing that information from one generation to the next
reality oriented functions such as reasoning, remembering, and planning
classical conditioning
learning that occurs when events take place close together in time and thus acquire a similar meaning
operant conditioning
learning that emerges as a result of repetition and reinforcement
cognitive map
an internal mental representation of the learning environment
open systems
structures that maintain their organization even though their parts are constantly changing
comparative study of unique adaptive behaviors that contribute to species' survival
An area of mental functioning and a storehouse of wishes and drives of which one is unaware
A balance in the organization of mental structures that provides the person with effective ways of interpreting experience and interacting with the environment
zone of proximal development
The distance between the actual level of development and the level one can achieve when guided by a more capable peer or teacher
vicarious reinforcement
learning that is guided by observing the consequences of the behavior for others
cultural determinism
psychological development is shaped by cultural expectations, resources, and challenges
the interrelationships among two or more settings in which a person participates
T or F: open systems maintain their boundaries and their basic identity even though elements and substructures within the system are constantly changing
what are the three basic structures of personality according to the psychosexual theory?
the id (sexual and aggressive impulses), the ego (reality-oriented functions), and the superego (the moral, ethical principles)
Piaget's cognitive development theory focuses on....
how individuals come to 'know' and the emergence of knowledge
What is considered a basic conept underlying vygotsky's theory?
Vygotsky's contribution to human development is the emphasis on....
social context
0-.2= weak, mild, or high correlation?
.6 and higher= weak, mild, or high correlation?
0-.2= weak
.6 and higher= high

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