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Embryology final


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Parts of pharyngeal apparatus
-Pharyngeal arches
-Pharyngeal pouches -endoderm
-Pharyngeal grooves - ectoderm
-Pharyngeal membranes - where a pouch meets a groove
First pharyngeal arch forms 2 prominences
-Maxillary prominence
-Mandibular prominence
Pharyngeal arches form when?
4th and 5th weeks of development
First arch cartilage
-Cartilage is known as Meckle's cartilage
-Malleus and incus
-Anterior ligament of malleus and sphenomandibular ligament
-Contributes to formation of mandible
Second arch cartilage
-Stapes and styloid process of temporal bone
-Stylohyoid ligament
-Hyoid bone - lesser horn and superior part
Third arch cartilage
-Greater horn and inferior part of hyoid bone
Fourth and sixth arches cartilage
-Laryngeal cartilage
First arch muscle
-Muscles of mastication
-Mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric
-Tensor tympani
-Tensor veli palatini
Second arch muscle
-Muscles of facial expression
-Posterior belly of digastric
Third arch muscle
Fourth arch muscle
-Muscles of palate
-Muscles of pharynx
Sixth arch muscle
-Laryngeal muscles
-Inferior pharyngeal constrictor
-Skeletal muscle of esophagus
Derivatives of pharyngeal arch nerves
1st - CN V
2nd - CN VII
3d - CN IX
4th and 6th - CN X
First pharyngeal pouch
-This pouch grows outward and contacts ectoderm and will form tympanic membrane and pharyngotympanic tube
Second pharyngeal pouch
Obliterated by growth of palatine tonsils, pouch remains as tonsillar fossa

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