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early jazz in new orleans
dixieband jass(jazz) band -- collective improvisation, syncopation
musical symbolism or person, place, or thing
complete or incomplete
Act III Final Scene
Ride of Valkyries, Wotan -- King, Brunhilde -- daughter, endless melody, continuous sound, dissonance -- refusal to cadence, leitmotifs -- slumber, magic sleep, fire and siegfreid, there was music for drama rather than the guy singing the whole time
Aspects of Tonality
Modal and Tonal
big money and bigger bands
due to recording band, wartime rationing, sentimental changes most bands died during WWII
French Opera
lyric opera, grand opera, opera comique
Blue grass
billy monroe and his bluegrass boys, instrumentation
African American influences
field hollers, work songs, spirtuals
Classic Blues
professional songwriters and performers interpretation of folk music
bessie smith
one of the classic blues singers, born poor, but didnt stay that way, her 1st record sold almost 800,000 records, do commercial success and mas production have a corrupting effect on art
American music
constant juxaposition of European, latin, native, and african american influences,
hillibilly style number 3: from folk secular/minstrel tradition
string bands (uncle dave macon, and his fruit jar drinkers), Jordan is a hard road to travel v. dr boatmans dance
blue notes
flattened pitches of scale, bessie smith, ma rainey
German Opera
singspiel, music drama
Country blues
folk derived, guitar/banjo, vocally driven, free rhythm, more free form, regional diverse, delta blues, texas blues -- later chicago, authentic blues, robert johnson, blind leman jefferson son house
The Carter Family
AP Doc Carter (1891 - 1960) -- song bass and collected folk songs, sarah carter -- sang lead vocals and played autoharp and guitar, maybelle (sister-in-law) -- song back up, influencial guitar playing, influencial guitar playing, melody of bass wildwood flawer
Establishment of a tonic (home/finishing tone)
big band jazz
duke ellington, big band leader pianist, composer, arranger, dapper, witty, forthright, highly influential, "american music", harlem's cotton club -- speak easy, for weathy white people, housband
Development of Jazz
New Orleans, LA, complex interweaving of cultural influences, wind bands, ragtime and collective improvisation, syncopation of ragtime w/ swing of a soulful marching band
Scott Joplin
King of Ragtime,
Pre WWII Technology Advancements
piano sheet music, live music, late 19th century, early phonograph 1877 edison, shellac discs, double sided, 1906: first radio broadcast, sale of records exeeds sheet music, telephone, phonograph, radio station, automobile, motion pictures
jazz at the pops
popularity of jazz pushes it into new realms, symphonie jazz -- white jazz, paul whiteman, take out the rag = HAPPY WHITES! not
Magnetic tape, track recording (les Paul), stereo recordings, "Battle of the Speeds", 78, 33 1/2, 45 rpm, FM radio, Television
European American influences
ballads, folk songs, hymns, art music
Charlie "Bird" Parker
The tortured legend of his own time -- drug, alcohol, sex, food addict
Hillbilly style 2: honky tonk
hard livin/lovin wrogn with a reliious restless lifestyle
Wagner's Ring Cycle
The Ring of Nibelung (4 opera cycle), rhine maidens, gold in river--ring of power, follows ring through 3 generations, sigfried -- hero, story from norse sagas german epic poem
Wagner's Music
Endless melody, finally cadences at the very end, music tells inner story, extreme chromatic dissonance, pushing tonality to the limit
Bessie smith - black water blues
smith composed the music and lyrics, what does it mean to compose a 12 bar song? a reflection variation AA1B, expressive style,
Hillbilly Music
urban v. rural, migration and life changes (home), good ole days, family, love songs, home and hearth, restlessness
European American Development
roughed it without conservatories for music, European Folk and art music, Military processional music, rural folk music -- sacred and secular
Jimmy Rodgers
the singing breakman, yodeling styel, slide guitar, jazzy horns, blue yodels
point of repose
consonance v. dissonance
Minstel Show
America's first art form?, extremely popular in mid 19th century (civil war), comedy skits, whites acted sterotypes (african, asian, native american, female, political) last full length show - 1950's
John Gay's Beggar's Opera
State music for the masses, highly influential, Ballad opera, spoken and then sung to popular tunes w/ different text
3 main hillbilly styles
sacred folk tradition, honky tonk, secular folk and minstrel tradiiton
Microphone -- 1925,
establishing a tonic
through repetition, drone, melody, harmony, tonic/dominant relationship V-I, scales and modes, the octave, chromatic scale, diatonic scale, pentatonic (5 notes between octave)
American Wind Bands
Civil War and Post civil war phenomenon, town bands, displaced musicians, John phillip sousa, started processions and parades
African American Music Development
Syncretic and Institutional -- church, family, work songs
Ellington's Conga Brava
syncopation, muted bras -- timbre, trombone introduction, solo breaks -- improvisational sax, trumpet, dramatic change in style and mood, latin -- brava to swing, conga - afro cuban dance, constant variation, large scale, ABA conga
Hillbilly style one from sacred folk tradition
"gospel ship", traditional arranged by AP Carter, sacred music -- faith, no firm seperation between sacred and secular folksy sacred text, family values
Country or Rural Blues
marketed as authentic, usually solo musicians with guitar or banjo, 1st recorded was blind lemon jefferson, "SON'S HOUSE" -- no influence from marketing of classic blues, real folk music?
The african aesthetic
connections to african musical practices
WC Handy
codified popular blues tradition 12 bar, 16 bar, 10 bar blues form,
Major v. Minor and everything in between, mood, flavor, stylistic and natural sign, western scales, chromatic,
swing jazz
big band swing, young audience, by wwII became the sound of america, duke ellington, benny goodman, fletcher henderson, artie shaw, louis arstrong
ring shout
call and response, blue notes (notes in between 12 note scale), polyrhythms (more than 1 rhythmn happening), communal participation, connection with bodily movement, and with worship, ecstacy, differing (non-homogeneous) timbres
Italian Opera
opera buffa, opera seria
commercial marketing -- catering to specific audiences, counter culture, independent record labesl -- okeh (hillbilly) black swan (Black people), Smaller Radio Strations
Richard Wagner
German composer, grand opera (nationalistic) wrote his own librettos, revolutionsit, (switzerland banished), new german school, wrote about art and revolution, music drama, jerk, antisemetic

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