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Chapter Nervous System A&P

Terms

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somatic nervous system
controls the voluntary actions of the sketal muscle. (motor)
cerebellum
second largest part of the brain. lies against occipital bone, controls posture, maintein balance, equilabrium, directs learned movement.
CTS
Carpal tunnel syndrome
longitudinal fissure
structure that divides the left and right side of cerebrum
afferent neurons
carry nerve impulses to the cns
axon
transmits impulses away from the cell body. covered with myelin.
efferent
motors awasy vrom action
neuron anatomy
cell body, dendrites, axon
sensory nerves
receive stimuli and take them to the brain.
PNS
31 pairs of nerves
glioma
brain tumor
neurotransmitters that stimulate
are acetylcholine ro norepinephrine
sympathetic nervous system
part of ANS increase heart rate
spinal cord location
base of brain to L2
decending tracts
carry impulses from brain and is motor.
Parkinsons disease
decrease in dopamine in the brain
Sciatic nerve
travels in the buttock and behind the thigh and splits before entering the poplieteal space (behind the knee)
brain
weighs 3 pouns. 98% neutral tissue
CNS
12 pairs of nerves
Cell body
contains the mitochondria and nucleus
covered fibers
myelin and are termed white matter of the pns
spinal cord
pathway of impulses to/from the brain.
Pituitary gland
hangs from the hypothalmus.
Nodes of Ranvier
spaces between schwann cells
myelin
white and fatty substance that wraps around the axon. It helps the impulse travel faster. Insulates.
pia mater
inner layer
Computer system of the human body
Nervous system
soma
body
cerebrospinal fluid
fills the hollow spaces in the brain and spinal cord.
brainstem
(pons) responsible for major body functions; respiration, heart rate, digestion
lumbosacral plexus
serves the lower extremity.
plexus
nerve fibers that serve a certain region (brachial, lumbar)
tracts
bundles of axons located in the cns are termed
medulla obolongata
main part of the brain stem that controls vital function
vagus
longest cranial nerve
arachnoid
middle layer
dendrites
Greek: dendro = tree
Spinal cord length
18" long and 1/2" wide
dura matter
outer layer
cerebrum
mushroom cap, gray matter on the surface and white matter inside. Divided into left and right hemispheres.
synaptic junction
chemical that help impulses cross teh synapse and called neurotransmitters
Nervous system
Smallest organ system by weight but the most complex.
Neurons
nerve cells
31 pairs
spinal nerves. Left and right. 62 total.
sensory
nerves receive stimuli and tkae them to the brain.
Mixed
spinal nerves. both sensory and motor.
sensory neurons
work with receptor cells
meneges
membranes that cover the brain.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and Spinal
brachial plexus
serves the arm and shoulder. Median nerves come off.
glia - neuroglia
do not spread impulse but act as a supporting glue
corpus calloseum
hemispheres are connected by
microglia
small and remain stationary.
ventricles
hollow spaces in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
division of the brain
creebellum, diencephalon, cerebum, brain stem.
myelinated neurons in the cns
white matter
afferent
sensory from outside to inside
synapse
bridge. at end of axon where the neurons communicate.
astrocytes
star shaped cells; attach neuron to small blood vessels in the brain. cns
oligodendrocytes
help in the production of myelin for the axon.
parasympathetic nervous system
part of ANS decrease heart rate
limbic system
is the area of diencephalon that controls primitive functions. Fear, sex, rage, chewing.
Two types of cells in nervous system
neurons and glia
Schwann Cells
produce myelin (pns)
PNS
Automatic nervous system, Somatic nervous system & Sensory nerves
glia
glue
ascending tracts
carry impulse to brain and is sensory
diencephalon
located between cerebrum and the brainstem. hypothalmus and thalmus. called relay center. all sensations pass thru it.
ridges and grooves
gyri and fissures contained in cerebrum
cerebrum function
memory, higher thinking, emotions
ANS
regulates the bodies automatic involuntary functions such as heart rate, contraction of stomach and intestines, blood pressure and breathing rate.
receptor cells sensitive to
touch, pressure, pain, temperature
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Nerves
interneurons
neurons that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons and called connecting neurons.
unmyelinated neurons in cns
gray matter

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