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9 Respiratory LOM Diagnostic Pathologic


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pleural rub
scratchy sound produced by the motion of inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other; also called friction rub.
rales (crackles)
Abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspiration when there is fluid, blood, or pus in the alveoli.
material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat.
strained, high-pitched, noisy sound made on inspiration; associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
Continuos high-pitched whistling sounds heard when air is forced thru a narrow space during inspiration or expiration.
acute viral infxn in infants and children; characterized by obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor.
acute infxn of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium). leathery, opaque membrane forms in the pharynx and respiratory tract. Injection 6-8 weeks of life, DPT.
nosebleed. results from irritation of nasal mucous membranes, trauma, vitamin K deficiency, clotting abnormalities, or hypertension.
bacterial infxn of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis, a highly contagious bacterium. Whooping cough.
chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by airway obstruction caused by edema, bronchoconstruction, and increased mucus production.
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infxn in the lower lobes of the lung. caused by loss of elasticity of the bronchi. secretions puddle and don't drain normally. fever, cough, expectoration of foul-smelling purulent sputum.
bronchogenic carcinoma (lung cancer)
NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer), adenocarcinomas(mucus-secreting cells) and squamous cell carcinomas(lining of bronchus). SCLC, small round to oval secretory cells in pulmonary epithelium.
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time. excessive secretion of mucus, a productive cough, and obstruction of respiratory passages. chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema are all components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (COPD).
cystic fibrosis
inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that do not drain normally. pancreas, sweat glands, and epithelium. therapy: replacement of pancreatic enzymes and treatment of pulmonary obstruction and infxn. gene responsible is known.
incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung or portion of a lung. caused by tumor or other obstruction of the bronchus, or poor respiratory effort. the bronchioles and alveoli resemble a collapsed balloon. causes: poor inspiration effort postop, blockage of a bronchus or small bronchial tube by secretions, tumor or chest wound that permits air, fluid or bld to accumulate in the pleural cavity.
hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls. strong association with smoking. as a result of destruction of lung parenchyma, including bld vessels, pulmonary artery pressure rises and the rt side of the heart must work harder to pump bld, this leads to rt ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure (cor pumonale).
dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infxn, and bronchitis.
acute inflammation and infxn of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory rxn. causes: pneumococci, staphylococci, and other bacteria, fungi, or viruses. infxn damages alveolar membranes so that an exudate consolidates in alveoli.
Lobar pnemonia
entire lobe of lung.
common in infants and elderly, patchy consolidation in the lung parenchyma. treatmnt: antibiotics and oxygen and mechanical ventilation.
community acquired pneumonia
contagious respiratory infxn, caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria or mycoplasma (a type of bacteria). treated at home with oral antibios.
hospital-acquired pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia
results from being hospitalized (Greek nosokomeion, hospital).
pulmonary abscess
a large collection of pus (bacterial infxn) in the lungs.
pulmonary edema
swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. most commonly caused by inability of hrt to pump bld (CHF). blood backs up in the pulm bld vessels and fluid seeps out into the alveoli and bronchioles. requires immediate medical attn including drugs(diuretics, vasodilators), oxygen in high concentrations, and keeping the pat in a sitting position(to decrease venous return to hrt).
pulmonary embolism (PE)
Clot(thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung. clot travels from distant veins, produce pulmonary infarction. causes acute pleuritic chest pain(pain on inspiration)and may be associated with bld in the sputum, fever, respiratory insufficiency. diagnosed by ventilation/perfusion scans that reveal areas that lack perfusion.
pulmonary fibrosis
formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs. may be the result of any inflammation or irritation caused by tuberculosis, pneumonia, or pneumoconiosis.
chronic inflammatory dz of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. visible on chest x-ray. many pats are asymptomatic and retain adequate pulmonary function. corticosteroid drugs are used to prevent progression in these pats.
tuberculosis (TB)
Infectious dz caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs are usually involved, but any organ may be affected. Rod-shaped bacteria, bacilli, invade the lungs, producing small tubercles of infxn. early TB is asymptomatic, detected on routine chest x-ray. sympt:cough, weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and pleuritic pain. tmnt: antituberculous chemotherapy(isoniazid, rifampin). PPD skin test.
rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura and associated with exposure to asbestos. mesothelium forms the lining of the pleural surface.
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. exudates (fluids from tumors, infxns, trauma, and other dzs) and transudates(from CHF, pulmonary embolism, or cirrhosis).
pleurisy (pleuritis)
inflammation of the pleura. causes pleurodynia and dyspnea and in chronic cases pleural effusion.
collection of air in the pleural space. may occur in the course of a pulmonary dz (emphysema, carcinoma, tuberculosis, or lung abscess) when rupture of any pulm lesions near the pleural surface allows communication between an alveolus or bronchus and the pleural cavity. may follow trauma and prolonged high-flow oxygen delivered by a respirator in an ICU.
coal dust accumulation in the lungs.
asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs.
Rod-shaped bacteria (cause of TB)
chronic obstructive pulmonary dz. caused by smoking, chronic infection, asthma. blue bloaters(predominant chronic COPD) and pink puffers (predominant emphysema)
cor pulmonale
failure of the rt side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs.
fluid, cells, or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries thru pores or small breaks in cell membranes.
collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
sudden occurance, such as a spasm or seizure.
coarse, loud rales caused by secretions in the bronchial tubes.
silica or glass dust in the lungs; occurs in mining occupations.

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