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Psychology 4


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The process of stimulating the sense organ receptor cells and relaying that information to higher brain centers for further processing.
The brain's process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning.
Absolute threshold
the minimum amount of stimulations that an organism can detect.
Difference threshold
The smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect.
Weber's Law
The size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus.
outside white part
clear muscle covering the front of the eye, allows light to come through.
transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina.
colored central part, controls the size of the pupil.
regulates the amount of light passing to the rear of the eye.
the receptors in the retina that are exquisitely sensitive to light but are not very useful for color.
receptors in the retina for color perception
a tiny spot in the center of the retina where visual activity is greatest, where the retina focuses the light.
Blind Spot
where your optic nerve connects to your eye making it impossible for rods or cones to exist there.
the neutral tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain.
the external ear's sound collecting cone
Auditory Ossicles
three tiny bones in the middle ear that convert the eardrums vibrations into smaller motions.
Oval Window
sound enters the cochlea through the oval window, which is vibrated by the ossicles.
Basilar Membrane
runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors.
a fluid filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing. Comes from the Greek word for a spiral-shelled snail, which the chamber resembles.
Hair Cells
auditory receptors, called this because of the tiny bundles of hairs that protrude them.
Depth Perception
Texture, shadowing, accomodation, atmospheric perspectives, interposition
Visual Illusion
Illusion that occurs when two objects produce exactly the same retinal image but are perceived as different images.
Figure-ground relationship
how we're able to make sense of what we see in front and back.
Law of Proximity
things that are closer together will be grouped together.
Law of Similarity
Things that look alike will be grouped together.
Law of closure
Our perception feels in the gaps. s_u__re
Characteristic of sound- frequency-how fast in air pressure change.
Characteristic of sound-Amplitude-the energy of the wave.
Quality of sound, how well we hear it.
Unconditioned stimulus
Evokes response that is inate.
Unconditioned response
pin prick is stimulus-> moving arm away is inate response.
Conditioned Stimulus
Neutral stimulus paired w/unconditional stimulus.
Conditioned Response
Arm is moved when the bell rings before being poked.
Spontaneous recovery
You remember and the stimulus is activated.
Respond similarly to similar kinds of cues.
Response is more specific to a given stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behaviors occurrence
Thorndike's law of effect
Behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
Skinner box
Schedules of Reinforcement
1)Fixed Ratio schedule
2)Variable-ratio schedule
3)Fixed-interval schedule
4)Variable-interval schedule
What is punishment?
PUnishment only tells us what not to do instead of what to do.
Negative PUnishment
removal of a pleasureable stimulus that decreases liklihood behavior will reoccur. ->playstation and bath.
Negative Reinforcement
Removal of an obversice stimulus that increases the likelyhood that behavior will reoccur. -> seatbelt warning, stopped yelling.
Positive Reinforcement
Application of a pleasurable stimulus that increases likelyhood that positive behavior will occur.
Positive Punishment
Administration of an obversive stimulus that decreases likelyhood that behavior will occur.
The three S's
1)Swift-immediate punishment
2)Severe-has to be punishing.
3)Certain-every time

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