This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Anthropology Test 2


undefined, object
copy deck
In anthropology a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state
what refers to societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, are socially stratified, and are governed by a governed by a ruling elite working through centrally organized political systems called states.
western, orthodox, islamic, african, latin american, sinic, hindu, buddhist, and japanese are all what?
mesoamerica, peru, indus, hsia, nile valley, lower mesopotamia, and great zimbabwe are all what?
early civilzations
what four culture changes mark the transition to life in civilized urban centers?
rise in population, emergence of centralized government, technological intensification, and social stratification
what is the name of a lowland mayan city occupied from approximately 3,000-1,100 years ago?
what involved the development of new farming methods such as irrigation that increased crop yields?
agricultural innovation
What is the age of the old world that began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia and about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia?
Bronze age
What is the old world period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze
bronze age
What is the taxonomic category of subspecies that is not applicable to humans bc the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation?
In some societies _____ is an important social category.
What is a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics?
What is a sugar that is primary constituent of fresh milk?
what is an enzyme in the small intestine that enables humans to assimilate lactose?
What is the human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen?
thrifty genotype
What is an organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well being?
What is the cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiations between the sexes?
What is a distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society?
What are the people called who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs?
ethnic group
What is the word rooted in Greek for a expression of the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group?
What is a society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences?
pluralistic society
What is a sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way?
What is the rule governed relationships with all their rights and obligations that hold members of a society together?
social structure
What is the economic foundation of a society including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living?
What structure includes religion and national ideology? ideas, beliefs, and values by which a group of people makes sense of the world?
what is the structure that is made up of households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics?
social structure
what is a complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment?
cultural adaptation
what is the idea that one must suspend judgment of other peoples practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms?
cultural relativism
what is the modern scientific study of all aspects of language?
what is the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language?
what is the study of language sounds?
what is the smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language?
what is the study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language including verb tense, pluralization, and compound words?
what is the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language? They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning but have no meaning by themselves?
what are the patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences?
what is the entire formal structure of a language, including morphology and syntax?
what is a group of languages descended from a single ancestral language?
language family
what is the development of different languages from a single ancestral language?
linguistic divergence
at is the development of different languages from a single ancestral language?
linguistic divergence
what is the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms?
linguistic nationalism
what is the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories (such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, occupation, class)influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech?
what is a distinct male and female speech pattern which vary across social and cultural settings called?
gendered speech
what are the varying forms of language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible?
what is changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another?
code switching
what is a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other?
what is the idea that distinctions encoded in one language that are unique to that language?
linguistic relativity
what is the idea that language to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us?
linguistic determinism
what is a facial expression and or body posture/motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages?
what is a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages?
what is a cross cultural study of humankinds perception and use of space?
what are voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning. These include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo?
what is a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning?
tonal language
what is the word for referring to things and events removed in time and space?
what is a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way
writing system
what is a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order?
early civilizations developed extensive ____ _____ to procure the raw materials needed for their technologies.
trade systems
diversification of labor occurred as a result of what?
population growth in cities
with _____ came development of new technologies, leading to the beginnings of extensive trade systems.
Knowledge was an outgrowth of _____ innovation and increased contact with foreign people through trade.
what dynasty lived during 2100 B.C. -1800 B.C.
xia dynasty
the xia dynasty attributes the founding of the dynasty to ____, the third sage king. There was said to be 17 rules.
the xia dynasty lived during what age?
bronze age
what dynasty lived between 1800 BC and 1100 BC. The warlord Tang takes control of the xia kingdom.
Shang Dynasty
____ dynasty accomplishments include bronze vessels, weapons, and tools, carved jade and turtle shells for divination, glazed pottery, lcquerware, tombs, calendar, early script (writing).
shang dynasty
the _____ dynasty had war chariots drawn by horses probable brought to china by inhabitants of the steppe, early ancestors of the mongols. Oracle bones give witness to writing and divination practices.
shang dynasty
Shang kings used _____ _____ to divine answers to various questions concerning the success of harvests, military expeditions, events such as the birth of a child, and even vary personal matters such as which disaffected ancestor might be causing a toothac
oracle bones
what provided an authority to deal with the complex problems associated with cities?
central government
evidence of a central governing authority comes from what?
law codes, temple records, and royal chronicles
law codes, temple records, and royal chronicles are evidence of what?
central governing authority
public structures and signs of centralized planning is further evidence of what?
centralized government
Typically, what were the first cities headed by?
A king and his special advisers
The emergence of what is a culture change characteristics of cities and states?
social classes
Archaeologists have been able to verify the existence of what in ancient civilizations by studying burial customs and grave goods?
social classes
Studies of the massive cemetary at _______ reveal evidence of increased social stratification. Only six burials were large, eight are medium and some 600 are small in size.
What indicates the status of deceased individuals in stratified societies?
Grave goods
What theories emphasize the interrelation of the actions of ancient people and their enviroment?
What 2 problems in early cities came along with large numbers of people living close together?
poor sanitation and disease
dense population, class systems, and strong centralized government cause what?
internal stress
What was a common problem in early cities?

Deck Info