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World History Study LIst

Terms

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Terrorism
The use of violence by non-governmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal by instilling fear and fightening governments into changing policies
Marginal Utility
the extra usefulness gained from consuming one more unit of a product
Multinational Corporation
large corporation with overseas investments
Secular
a viewpoint void of religious thought or considerations
Politics
the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
Amnesty
the act of granting a pardon to a large group of people
Liberal
a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but that the governmt should not dictate social behavior
Interest Group
a group of people with common goals who organize to influence government
Liquidity
ability to convert an asset into cash quickly
Depression
a state of the economy with large numbers of unemployment, supply shortages, and excess capacity in manufacturing plants
Dictator
an absolute ruler
Renaissance
a period in European history of the rebirth of learning based on the kowledge of ancient Roman and Greek learning; mainly in art, philosophy, invention, exploration and religious reform
Tariff
a tax on an imported product
Brinkmanship
the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
Gross Domestic Product
the dollar amount of all final goods and services producted within a country's borders in a year
Political Party
a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct governmet, and determine public policy
Heresy
thoughts and ideas that are contrary to the teachings of the Christian Faith
Conservative
a person who believes government power, particulary in the economy should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom
Trade-Off
alternatives that must be given up when one is chosen over another
Appeasement
satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability
Nationalism
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
Scarcity
the condition that results from limited resources combined with unlimited wants
Hellenistic
pertaining to Greek language and culture
Rural
of or relating to people who live in the country
Imperialism
the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic contorl over smaller or weaker nation
Middle Passage
the middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between he national and state governments
Magna Carta
a written code that limited the power of the English monarchy for the first time; also called the Great Charter
Suffrage
the right to vote
Lobbying
direct contact made by an interest group representative in order to persuade government officials to support the policies their interest group favors
Elasticity
a measure of responsiveness that tells us how a dependant variable such as quantity responds to an independant variable such as price
Minimum Wage
the lowest legal wage that can be paid to most workers
Standard of Living
the quality of life based on the possession of necessitites and luxuries that make life easier
Crusades
a series of military expeditions by Christian Europe to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
Segregation
the seperation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Confederacy
A loose union of independent states; name of government used by southern states that seceded during the Civil War
Detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, The Soviet Union and China
Reparation
payment made to the victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war
Constituent
a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a persons occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Incumbent
elected official that is already in office
Communism
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
Judicial Review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Disarmament
a limit or reduction in armed forces or weapons
Subversion
a systematic attempt to overthrow a government by using persons working secretly from within
Due Process of Law
principle in the 5th amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals
Sorvereignty
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
Political Machine
an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government
Bureaucracy
Government administrators
Nomad
people who move from place to plcae following animal migrations and vegetation cycles
Corporation
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
Republic
a specific descreption of a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them
State Sponsored Terroism
violent acts against civilians that are secretly supported by a government in order to attack other nationsl without going to war
Hieroglyphics
a sophisticated system of writing based on pictures
Patronage
the practice of granting favors to reward party loyalty
Democracy
a general description of a government in which the people rule
Nuclear Proliferation
the spread of nuclear wepons to new nations
Autonomous
self-governing
Social Contract
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
Euro
the basic currency shared by the countires of the European Union since 1999
Supply
the amount of a product that would be offered for sale at all possible prices that could prevail in the market
Fascism
a political system headed bya dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
Diplomacy
the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations without arousing hostility
Feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Aristocracy
an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another
Ethnic Cleansing
the expulsion imprisonment, or killing of ethnic minorities by a dominant majority group
Flexible Response
the buildbup of conventional trops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Impeachment
a formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official
Propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Jurisdiction
the authority, power, or right of a court to interpret or apple the law on certain cases
Conquistador
a Spanish conqueror of the Americas
Downsizing
reducing a company is soze by laying off worders and managers to becom more efficient
Totalitarian
a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens
Consumer Soverereighnty
the concept that the consumer is the ruler of the market
Civil Society
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independently from the government
Money
any substnace that serves as a medium of exchange, a measure of value, and a store of value
Naturalization
the legal process by which a person is granted citizenship
Internationalizm
a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity
Dynasty
a family line of rulers who's right to rule is passed on within the family
Ideology
a set of basic beliefs about life, culture, government, and society
Self-Determination
belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government
Capitilism
economic system in which private citiznes own and use the factors of production in order to generate profits
Nullification
the failure or refusal of a U.S. state to aid in the enforcement of federal laws within its state limits
Federal Reserve System
privately owned, publicly controlled, central band of the United States
Concentration Camp
a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions
Unemployed
people available for work who made a specific effort to find a job during the past month and who, during the most recent survey week, worked less than one hour for pay
Socialism
a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
Containment
the policy designed to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power
Government
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens
Deregulation
relaxation of government regulation on industry
Consumer Price Index
statistic that measures overall changes in price or inlation over time
Inflation
a rise in the general level of prices
Isolationism
the avoidance of involvement in world affairs
Divine Right of Kings
the idea that kings recieve their power from God and are responsible only to God
Dissident
a person who speaks out agains the regime in power
Bilingualism
the practice of teaching immigrant students in their own language
Insurrection
an act of rebellion against the established government
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Urban
of or located in the city

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