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Myers 7th ed. chapters 1 through 8

Terms

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culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
Cognitive
the branch of psychology that tells how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Experimental
the method used to explore cause and effect with manipulation or one or more factors (independent variables) and using random assignment
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)
infantile amnesia
our memories generally do not predate our third birthday
Fixed ratio
reinforcer after a set # of responses
Harlow's monkeys
through scientific experiment, these monkeys displayed the bond attachment associated with Social development showing the need for physical contact as the monkeys clung to the softer artificial "mother" when scared, feeding and when combined with other factors such as warmth, rocking and feeding became even more appealing.
modeling
Observe & imitate a specific behavior... may be latent learning
placebo
Latin for "I shall please" experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
myelin sheath
fatty covering of the axon of some neurons, helps speed neural impulses
UR
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus such as salivation when food is in the mouth
authoritative
parents are both demanding and responsive by exerting control, setting rules, enforcing them and also explaining the reasons. They also encourage discussions with older children and allow exceptions when making rules.
DNA
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
side effects of Punishment
increased aggression, fear of punisher, even when it suppresses undesired behavior, may not, guide toward the more desired behavior
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Latent content
underlying or deeper, hidden meaning of a dream
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep often at inopportune times.
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experience.
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that calms the body and conserves it's energy
encoding
the processing of information into the memory stystem -- for example, by extracting meaning
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
deja vu
the eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt , Competence vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence),Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Integrity vs. Despair (late life review)
hypothesis
a testable prediction often implied by a theory.
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Major Sleep Disorders
Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, Narcolepsy and Night Terrors
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
autonomic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs
fetus
what to call this stage of prenatal development -- 9 weeks to delivery
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the other variable.
Variable interval
reinforce first response after varying time lapse
Erikson's Competence vs. inferiority
Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to task, or they feel inferior
Sensation
detect physical energy in the environment and encode as neural signals. (bottom-up processing)
Partial Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
Piaget's Formal operational stage
abstract reasoning, abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning
gender identity
One's sense of being male or female.
hippocampus
a structure in the limbic system linked to memory
Piaget's Preoperational stage
representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstance.
plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
permissive
parents submit to the child's desires, make few demands and use little punishment
embryo
what to call the secondary stage of prenatal development (2 to 9 weeks)
Erikson's Integrity vs. despair
When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
identical twins
Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, two genetically identical organisms.
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Piaget's Sensorimotor stage
Experiencing the world through sensers and actions (looking touching mouthing and grasping)
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Edward Thorndike's law of effect
Rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
Serotonin
neurotransmitter which affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
Hospice
a supportive agency offering care and counseling to dying patients and their families; a program consisting of pallative and supportive services. provides psychological, financial, spiritual and social counseling. Main objective is to allow patient to die with dignity.
Shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
cerebral cortex
looks like a walnut and is the bulk of the brain. The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center
Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operations and Formal Operations
Classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning
Kohlberg's Postconventional morality
developed in people that contain abstract reasoning in formal operational thought and can affirm people's agreed-upon rights or following self-defined, basic ethical principles
cortical areas involved in aphasia
Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Angular gyrus, Motor cortex, Visual cortex
teratogens
agents such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
endocrine
a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
secondary reinforcer or conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer through learning such as money, good grades
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the _________ is responsible for automatic survival functions
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
Psychologist who theorized the terminally ill progress through sequence of: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is acheived through massed study or practice.
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord the
Illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In server cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
negative reinforcement
reducing or removing an unpleasant stimulus
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Wilhelm Wundt
established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
positive reinforcement
presenting a pleasant stimulus
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
parietal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
somatic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that helps in the voluntary controls of our skeletal muscles
Erikson's Identity vs. role confusion
Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
nature-nurture
the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience.
limbic system
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex Includes the hippocampus amygdale, and the hypothalamus
random sample or assignment
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Y
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with a(n) _____chromosome form the mother, it produces a male child.
Research methods
Descriptive, Correlation, Experimental
motor neurons
Neurons that carry outgoing info from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Parenting Styles
authoritative, authoritarian, permissive
medulla
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
EEG
electroencephalogram amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
authoritarian
parents (impose/ dictate) rules and expect obedience in a militant fashion
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it. (I knew it all along syndrome)
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that arouses the body and mobilizes energy in stressful situations
gender
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
Wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in left temporal lobe
Stimulants
stimulate neural functioning (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines)
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Evolutionary
the branch of psychology that tells how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
major divisions of the nervous system
CNS, PNS, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system sympathetic nervous system
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Dopamine
neurotransmitter which influences movement, learning, attention and emotion
zygote
what to call the primary stage of prenatal development (up to the first two weeks after conception)
Sleep Stages #3-4
large, slow delta waves; Pattern repeats every 90 minutes
technologies used to study the brain
EEG, MRI, PET, CT
memory
persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Hypnosis
accepted uses, but can be problematic in memory retrieval
pituitary
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Operant conditioning
we learn to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence and thus repeat acts followed by good results
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
frontal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgments
Reinforcer
any event that increases the frequency of the preceding response
temporal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
Sleep Apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
CT
Computed tomography is a medical imaging method employing tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. The word "tomography" is derived from the Greek tomos (slice) and graphein (to write).(known as a CAT scan)
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Erikson's Intimacy vs. isolation
Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
PET
positron emission tomography a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
critical period
just after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Depressants
depress neural functioning (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates)
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Variable ratio
reinforcer after unpredictable # of responses
amnesia
the loss of memory.
Kohlberg's Conventional morality
early adolescence, morality usually evolves to level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules.
Perception
selecting, organizing, interpreting meaningful objects & events.(top-down processing)
Erikson's Generativity vs. Stagnation
in middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
Social-Cultural
the branch of psychology that tells how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
hypothalamus
This small but important structure that lies below the thalamus helps keep the body's internal environment in a steady state by regulating thirst, hunger and body temperature and influences experiences of pleasurable reward
latent learning
learning that occurs but that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Piaget's Concrete Operational stage
thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
B.F. Skinner
1904 - 1990 -most influential and controversial figure. Developed behavioral technology and designed a famous operant chamber
less than half
the number of fertilized eggs that survive
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Fixed interval
equal time elapse between reinforcer
axon
passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands
mutation
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
Descriptive
the method used to observe and record behavior without manipulation (survey, case study, naturalistic observation)
Albert Bandura
Pioneering researcher in observational learning -- did Bobo doll experiment.
Behavioral
the branch of psychology that studies how we learn observable responses
CR
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
Psychodynamic or Psychoanalytic
the branch of psychology that tells how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
temperament
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
X
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two; males have one. A(n) ___ chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dentrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Lawrence Kohlberg
contends that moral thinking progresses through a series of stages: Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional
neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Continuous reinforcement
Constantly reinforced each time behavior occurs
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
storage
the retention of encoded information over time.
Functions of sleep
restorative to exhaustive brain tissue and helpful in consolidating memories, knitting together information
Erikson's Trust vs. mistrust
if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
motor cortex
the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.
endorphins
morphine within, neurotransmitter (pain and pleasure).
brain structures
cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, motor cortex, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, sensory cortex,
dendrites
the bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward a cell body
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage,
amygdala
Two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion. A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
CS
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes int the forms of objects
Erikson's Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they question their abilities
gender role
A set of expected behaviors for males or for females.
Observational learning
Learning by observing others
Sigmund Freud
famed personality theorist and therapist whose controversial ideas influenced humanity's self-understanding. Thought dreams were a wish-fulfillment through latent content.
natural selection
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
genes
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
Kohlberg's Preconventional morality
Before age 9, focused on self-interest. -to obey to avoid punishment or gain concrete reward
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Infant social attachment
can be described as either secure attachment, which is behavior, demonstrated from infants with sensitive, caring mothers or insecure attachment demonstrated by infants with neglectful and/or insensitive mothers
Night Terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, this disorder occurs during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and is seldom remembered
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, produced in one tissue and affect another. When they act on the brain, they influence our interest in sex, food and aggression
sleep rhythm
Stage 1 - Stage 4, back up to REM
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Punishment
application of a unpleasant stimulus (an aversive) tends to decrease the frequency of the preceding response May be "effective"...but has serious side effects:.
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter which enables muscle action, learning and memory
Neuroscience
the branch of psychology that tells how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Hallucinogens
distort perceptions (LSD, THC marijuana)
occipital lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas.
Correlation
the method used to detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another and compute statistical association, sometimes among survey responses
lesion
tissue destruction. a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Content and Function of Dreams
Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious thought Freud
Erikson's Initiative vs guilt
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to become independent
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
testosterone
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional _________ in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Sleep Stage #1
alpha waves, images like hallucinations (hypnogogic)
Circadian rhythm (circa dias)
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
US
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically -triggers a response
mirror aware
child self-concept: 15-18 mo
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. (Also called declarative memory.)
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
aphasia
the impaired use of language
Manifest content
story line of a dream
Broca's area
controls language expression--an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
thalamus
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
reticular formation
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational

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