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Trad FInal


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Cuddie Springs
Cuddie Springs (hot topic #2)
o 39 kya
o Tools
o Grinding stones
o Ochre
o 1 stone tool with blood residue
 Found next to bone from animal diroptadon
 Someone hunted with this tool
Malakunajanja: 50 kya
o Stone tools
o Ochre
o Top layer of site has matching carbon dates (24kya)
 Only carbon date from site
 Rest of site is thermoluminsecene
 Lower levers are like 60-70 kya but that’s really inaccurate at this time
 She thinks 40-45 kya
o Grinding stones
 Different from stuff before… stuff was chipped b4
 Occurs from the wear of grinding plant materials
o Bering strait
o Plaeoindian
 Refers somewhat to the first colonizer’s of Americas
o NE Asia/Russian and NW Alaska connected until 10 kya
 Area is refered to as Beringia
 Distance is over a thousand miles wide
o Area would have lots of grasslands and big game
o Archaelogy
 East Side, Russian Side
 NE Sibera does not have a lot of data, disturbance due to freezing
 What we do know is that there are not sites over 30kya
Ice Free Corridor
Ice Free corridor theory
• Two ice sheets: laurentide and cordilleranwhen it is a cold period, they get so big they meet up and form one great big ice sheet when its warm, they shrink and create the ice free corridor
• Probably always open after about 15 ka but may have been narrow
• People make it into Alaska, and then when the corridor opens go south after the animals (but how much vegetation could there have been for the animals? Were there animals?)
• Nobody’s sure when it would have been wide enough for travel through
• All evidence of sites is destroyed by movement of ice sheets
• Even at its widest, the corridor would have been a nasty place to be. Can create own weather.
Coastal Hypothesis
Coastal Migration
• Take boats down the coast
• Stop at ice free spots, don’t go far inland
• Make it down to South America quickly
• Either coast along Asian mainland, along Aleutian islands to north America OR through Marshall islands and French Polynesia by island hopping to south America
Monte Verde
Monte Verde
⬢ In Chile (pretty far south)
⬢ Winning lottery ticket for oldest accepted site
⬢ No one can fault this site
⬢ 12.5-13 ka
⬢ If they took Alaska coast route been in Americas awhile; if island hoppingcould be oldest sites
⬢ Covered in peat bog good at preserving organic material
⬢ Remains of a wood house, leather coverings, wooden tools, digging sticks, plant remains (medicinal), mammoth bone (meat clinging to it)
⬢ Probably there year round
⬢ Some stone tools; wood seemed to be more popular
⬢ Technological connection to
• Clovis culture what was typical then
• First widespread culture
• Assumed to be nomadic, big game hunters, and explorers
• Clovis pointsbifacial point, nicely retouched, distinctive plate taken of each sides- called flutes or channel flakes (make it easier to attach)

• Occupation sites basic activities of living (other stone and bone tools)
• Cache sites (deposit of bunch of stuff your burying; ritual?) Wenatchee- eastern Washington. One of the bigger cache sites. Biggest clovis point on all. Doesn’t appear they were made for a purpose; maybe ritual purpose?? Used to be covered in ochre.
Pleistocene Overkill
Pleistocene Overkill
• Hot Topic 3
o Pleistoscene Overkill
o Lots of hunting has to be done
o Focused on large herbivores
 Whipe out prey, predators have trouble
 Toppled the food chain?
• End of the Pleistocene in North America
o Clovis sweeping across the continent
o +
o Mass extinctions of megafauna
o =
o Pleistocene Overkill
o We do have mass extinction of megafauns
o Maybe if they killed out the herd animals, the carnivores and top of pyramid dies
o Many species which were on the list for Pleistocene overill
What probably happened to the megafauna?
⬢ What probably happened to the megafauna:
o Change in climate at the end of the Pleistocene (Holocene)
o Causes dietary stress
o Species fail to thrive
o Indicated by the fact that many small non-game animals go extinct too; not part of human food chain
vStellmoor (Germany)
o More famous site from europe at end of Pleistocene
o 11 kya
o A bow and arrow
o Over a thousand points
o Over 1300 antlers from reindeer
o With stone points embedded in bone
o Composite arrows
o This is ADVANCED arrow making, so they think stuff happened before this
o Advantages
 Accuracy
 Distance
 Force
 Lots of safety
Mount Sandal
Mount Sandel Ireland
o 10-9 kya
o Series of circular huts
o 10-20 ft in diameter
o Have year round remains (Sedentary)
o Fish, eel, flounder, bass
 Bottom feeders, not shore dwellers, ocean fish
o Domestication = process, not an event
o Define as: process of adaptation by a species to use by and of another species.
o Domestication by people involves interfering in the lifecycle of a species so that it becomes more useful and more tied to people
o Domesticated species are less fit than wild relatives
o Domestication need not be deliberate, probably wasn’t.
o Domestication = natural, symbiotic process going on all the time between many different pairs of species (mostly non-human).
⬢ Horticulture= management of wild plants
o Weeding
o Fertilizing/watering
o Shooing away animals
o Modifying nature in some way to encourage growth of plants
Seed Crop Cultivation
Seed-Crop Cultivation
o Planting seeds to grow crops;
o Very simple ecosystem –one (or a few) species
o Pure stands with many plants;
o Concentrates on most productive species
o Requires much weeding, watering, managing
o Unnatural and therefore risky
o Planting (or grafing)cuttings,/.,.1
o More complex eco-system, several species together
o Less productive
o Less work
o More natural and so less risky.
o You have the plants growing amongst others
o Here you don’t have a massive modification of a landscape
Animal Domestication
How to tell domesticated animals from wild ones
o Sudden increase in frequency of one species
o Species in abundance outside its natural range;
o Age and sex ratios—young males + old females;
o Morphological change – horns, size etc..
o Dogs don’t seem to be domesticated for food… as most domesticated animals were
o Most domesticated animals are ones that eat plants and hang out in herds
o Females are the limiting factor of the group
Ali Kosh
Ali Kosh (9kya Iran)
o Obsolutely we have domesticated sheep/goat… NO HORNS
o They can eat anything, forge on their own, don’t need lots of water
o Can get meat, hair, milk, bones horns
Hallan Cerni
Hallan Cerni (Turkey)
o Pigs!
o 10kya start to see lots of pig bones, Mostly young males
o Pigs have smaller teeth than wild ones
o Eats about anything, scraps
o By 5000, 25-30% of bones are Pig!
o At 4.4kya, pigs disappear completely
o Religious prohibition?
 Practical Reasons
• Pigs transmit disease called trichinosis
• Usually fatal
• But bacon is really good, yummy
• Occurs in pigs before they are dead, not a matter of spoiling
• Pigs in hot climates don’t really get trichinosis in this hot weather (usually in cold weather)
• Other reason—they require forested area and shelter
• So they get protection from sun (that’s why they roll in mud!)
• Lots of forest clearing at 4kya
It is a consequence of food production, and causes a lot of people to be in one area… thus health problems
o Consequences of sedentism and surplus
 Shorter birth spacing; no need to tow kid around
• Plenty of empty calories to make them
Consequences of Food Production
• Sedentism
• More labor
• Surplus/ Storage
o Consequences of Surplus
 Higher population
• Competition; theft
o Specialization: specialists can trade for food
 Trade in General
• Health issues:
o More dietary dress
 More disease
• More violence
o Cavities!!
 Sugars give the cavities, people die, the groundstones add stone pieces in the flour and it wears down enamel
• New technology
o Pottery (bowls pots)
 Groundstone
• Threshers eventually, and plows
• High risk: One drought, one plague, one blight, or one war can collapse the whole house of cards
Development of Complex Society: Pottery
o Also in piedmont & mountain areas as well
o Piedmont area has Halafian. In N. Alluvial plain we see Samarian pottery
 N. Alluvial---Rounded figures
o Both painted
o Most pottery made in village being used
o Each village has a kiln
o Almost every site has identical styles/Mass amounts
 Extensive social network and effective communication
• Political nework not showing
 Maybe it’s all made by same family in dif places?
o West Bank Israel/Palestine
o 10.5-9.5 kya
o Fully domesticated wheat and barley (a first?)
• Jerico
o Also a major arictechtual site
o Walls of Jerico
 3 meters thick
 600-1000 meters long
 Towers along wall
 Towers face in though (they watch inside…. Like vigilantes?)
 Prevent water coming in?
Abu Hureya
Abu Hureya (11kya) Syria
o Find wild wheat and wild barley
o It’s outside of the range
Ain Mahalla
Ain Mahalla (Israel)12 kya
o Sedentary community
o 50 circular houses
o Lots of plants in this site.. wild plants
o They have the first sickleblades
o They are distinct for the harvesting of plants
o Distinct in their shape
o They have a distinct usewear.. harvesting plant stuff become shiny
o They are visibly shiny
o When we have sickleblades, we are pretty sure they are involved in food production
o Wild barely
Wadi Kubanniya
Wadi Kubbaniya
o It’s a lil creek of the Nile
o In northeast Africa
o Only source of water
o 20kya we have a lil bit of extra rain
 paves the way for domestication
o This little stream creates marshes and wetlands
 Animals come here
 The people hunted wild cattle, gazzle, wildabeast, hippos
 Catfish being caught
o Lots of plant collecting
o Grinding stones pop up
o Basic hunting
o 12.5 kya things change
 High violent floods
 Usually it gently floods
 But this made the wetlands go away
 People are now stuck and have to change things
Jebel Sahaba
Jebel Sahaba
o 12.5kya
o It is a cemetery
o 60 burials
o Over 40% of them died violently (regardless of age or gender)
o Warefare?
Zengpiyan (china 10-9kya)
o Domesticated pig this time
o Pottery
o Domesticated dog, but this has been here for a wild
o Eventually they domesticate chickens too… but don’t know when and where… know by 7kya though it is here
o Domesticated animals before domesticated plants
o Pottery before plants
vPengtoushan (China)
o Domesticated rice FINALLY
o 9-7.5 kya⬦closer to 9
o Settled village, modest burials,
Peligang (China) 9.5-9 kya
o See millet
o Absolutely domesticated
o Looks like people have been living in this settled village year round for a thousand or so years
o So millet could have been for a while, and no millet remains
Kuk (New Guinea)
o 9kya -1kya
o people here for a long ass time
o Interesting because on island
o Pure vegeculture system
o Because of that, fields have a distinct look
o Tailored fields
o Irrigation channels are made so water drains down
o Fields are up on a raised mound
o Domesticated pigs
What are the 4 zones of mesopotamia?
o Zagros and Taurus Mountains
o Piedmont
o Northern Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain
o Southern Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, or Alluvium
o Zagros and Taurus Mountains
 Wild ancestors of wheat barly sheep goat
 Grazing plants
 Farming possible.

 Only source of wood, metal, good rock
o Piedmont
 Enough rain fall to dry farm
 Earliest food producing settlements
o Northern Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain
 Fertile land, but doesn’t get enough rain to dry farm
 Soil is hard enough that it can’t be worked unless you have a plow or a hell of a lot of tilling
o Southern Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, or Alluvium
 Earliest complex societies
 Hot, dry
 Can’t dry farm here at all
 Flat
 Very little vegetation
 No wild game
 No raw materials
 Rivers flood regularly of really kick ass soil.
 Some wetlands along edge of river
 Some reeds, some fish in river
 Southern Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain
• Settled life is muchmore challenging here than farther north:
• Had to irrigate, and therefore dig and maintain canals
• Had to deal with floods,
• Had to fish, as is only good protein source
• Three raw materials: clay, reeds, and some bones.
• Wood, stone, or metals were imported.
• Life is complicated; requires organization
Guila Naquitz
Guila Naquitz
o 9kya, Mexico
o Claim they have domesticated squash
o She thinks they might do
o Lots of wild plants are being used here
o There are also recent excavations that potentially have domesticated maiz at 5kya
Tehuacan Valley
Tehuacan Valley
o Arrid
o Mexico
o Things preserve well here
o No wild teosinte here… too dry here for it to grow
o Maiz here had to be brought in
o When it shows up, it’s definitely domesticated—out of its range
o Earliest domesticated maize is about 4700 ya
Koster (Illinois)
o Layer we are concerned about is 7ka
o Classic Archaic Period Site
o Archaic-After pleistoscene, before farming
o Hunting duck, geese, small mammals
o They are gathering pigweed goosefoot and sunflowers
 Then after a while they may be domesticated
o Fishing
o 4kya BP
o Near St. Louis
o 20-30,000 people
o Public Architecture-Cerimonial Center-platform
o Cahokia (Monks?) Mound 16 acre base, 100 ft high, Completely artificial
o A circle of wooden posts around it
o Craft specialist
o Elite Burials-
o Exotic goods
o Stuff from war away---maybe shows contact from meso america
o Full blown maize agriculture
o No evidence for system of writing or record keeping
o Would have kept going except europenas came and brought disease 60-70% died
o SouthernArizona
o Hohokam cetttment
o Agricultural group using irrigation
o 300 mi of irrigation in Gila Valley
o Don’t know a lot of social organization
o But there are cities near irrigation
o Built platform mounds… maybe for where elites lived that controlled water
o 600-800 AD 1400-1200 BP
o Lots of craft items, carved shells, clay figurines, exotic goods from mexico
The Ball Game
The Ball Game
o Ball courts at snaketown and other sites
o Rectangular and have stone rings on the sides that you can think of as baskets
o The game was played with hard rubber ball
o It’s a military and political activity
o If ball hit you it could kill you
o People who are chosen (warriors) to play game
o Some evidence of contact period documents that sometimes the end of the game meant sacrificing loosing team
o Sometimes the winning team was sacrificed
o Sometimes both
o Damn that sucks
o It’s clear that sometimes people lost lives after game
o Burials show some social organization
o Signs of warfare or hostilities
o And defensive fortification
Tres Ventanas
Tres Ventanas Cava
o Peru
o Rumors of domesticated potatoes as old as 10kya
o But remains of potatoes in question are being dated indirectly
o From somewhere else in same layer—charcoal
o So it’s possible but who the fuck really knows
o Unlikely cause they don’t appear anywhere else for 6ky
o By 4kya bp there is domesticated potato at this site and all along costal area
Guitarrero Cave
Guitarrero Cave
o Peru
o Lots of preserved plant remains
o No one has AMS dated this shit
o Most stuff is dated with radio carbon of charcoal
o Associated dates—7.6ky-7.5ky
o A few beans were AMS dated, and 2.6ky
Ayacucho Cave
Ayachucho Cave
o Peru
o Domesticated cotton at 5k bp
o Cotton domesticated before more food crops
o Really important to south America culture
o Fabrics and beautiful textures become big part of culture
o Places are known for these kick ass textiles
Complex Societies
Characteristics of a Complex Society
o Cities
 Settlement of more than 5000 people
 Shows signs of being organized
• Spacially
• Socially
• Some residents are doing something other than farming
 Socially defined differences between people
o Centralized economy
o Elite controlling class
 Hereditary elite
o Long distance trade
o Public/Monumental Architecture
 Temples/ plazas
o Standardized record keeping
 Most controversial
Service’s Progression of Complex Societies
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States, Empires
Characteristics of a band
 Several family groups
 10-40 people (now adays we kinda assume 100 people)
 Division of labor by sex and age
 Maybe an adult with prestige
• No real power, but they more lead by example
 membership is flexible
 size vary with season, year to year
 assumed to be egalitarian
Tribes characteristics?
 Expanded band
Chiefdom characteristics?
 Up to like several thousand people
 Social more organized
 Position in society by heredity
 Part time craft specialization
 Based on system of hereditary inequality
 Really rigid
 Marrying or military to go up
State characteristics?
 Larger than a chiefdom
 Centralized government ran by hereditary elite
 More complex
 Centralized-all stuff made is distributed by people in power
 Variety of settlement sizes and types
 Settlement specialization
 Farming satellites
 Full time craft specialization
• Produce single type of good
o Empires
 It becomes empires when it annexes other groups
• YOU WILL become one of us
Mortuary Cult
Pharaonic Burial cult
o Grave goods are universal
o Separate areas within cemeteries
 Poor people vs rich people
o Heads to the south, facing to the west..
o At the feet of the corpse (north) were pots with ashes and burned bones.
o At the heads (south) were pots filled with scented fat.
• 5.5 kya some towns start becoming fortified
• at 5 kya text says Menes, or also known as Narmer unifies upper and lower Egypt
• We don’t know who he is, but reason he is from upper Egypt and they work over lower Egypt
• We do know that about 5 kya, lower Egypt gets the burial culture and stops lookin different from upper Egypt
Ubaid Period
o 6.5-kya to about 6.35kya
o Spreads all over southern plain
o Stars w/ development of many small but densely packed cities
o Outside of cities have agricultural villages that feed cities
o City sites have massive mudbrick bounds w/ temples ontop
o This is both public space and monument
o Probably under some kind of common political system (cites and outside villages)
o Definitely at least some kind of social structure
o At about 5.5kya things changed
 Outlying villages become smaller and smaller, cities become large and fortified (people moved into cities)
 Due to warfare?
o Public architecture
 In complex societies, this is universal
 Doesn’t make a lot of economic sense
 Power structures
• It says, we kick ass and we have money to spend and I have power so don’t fuck with me
 Elites told commoners what to do
• Keeps commoners poor
• Can’t do their own things, cause time is spent on building stuff for rich
Eridu (Iraq)
o Earliest known site on southern Mesopotamian plain
o No resources in this area unless it is brought it
o Famous for earliest southern meso plain and
 Samarians mention it in their text as first city to rise after the flood
o Built from reed and mudbrick
 It is a tell site
o There is a simple one room temple
 There is a small altar
 And table for offering
 This layout and format for construction is same as later sites with religious text
o Maybe some organized religion
o Iraq
o Sumerian site
o 5-4kya
o Ceremonial site
o Several ziggarts (step pyramids)
o Temple on top of them
o Temples/tombs of Sumerian royality
o Royal cemetery
o Gorgeous objects made out of gold
o Richest grave is the grave of Queen/(Priestest?) Puabi
 Also 80 other people who died at same time
 They are sacrifices
 No sign of trauma
 Each person has identical clay cup
 Poisoned
The Sumerians
o 5kya
o The core of southwest asian civilization for 1000’s of year
o Have systems of writing
o Preserved in clay
o Quneiform
o We have translation into other languages
What is writing?
Writing is⬦
⬢ A notational system for depicting thoughts and or ideas
⬢ A system of human intercommunication of thoughts and or ideas by means of conventional visible marks
⬢ At its advent, and in its simplest form, a standard ized system for record keeping
Harappan writing
Harappan Writing
o Exclusively on seals
o Like a rubber stamp
o They have no idea what they mean
o Looks more sophisticated than just an accounting system
o All this sprung out of no where
o But also have system of weights and measure (after the writing lol)
What are the implications of writing?
Implication of writing
• Communication across space and time- with a lot of people and little effort
• Record keeping- keeps things accurate, a way to retain information
• Standardization- without it nothing could be understood
• Just because a society has writing does not mean everyone is literate and understand writing.
• Some societies had some jobs for people to learn to read and write and be an interpreter; even some “royalty” were illiterate
• Earliest mogul emperor in India could not read or write had a court scribe danger of miscommunication. Is it being translated correctly?
Hammurabi’s Code
• first legal document; laws and punishment “eye for an eye”
• possible that some punished were illiterate and didn’t know what they were doing was wrong
• Its power
What are the types of writing?
⬢ Pictograms
⬢ Ideograms
⬢ Phonograms
⬢ Alphabets
What is a pictogram?
⬢ Picture used to represent an actual object
⬢ Indus valley used pictograms had seals to indicate economy like goods and things people owned
⬢ Ie. Deer sign
What is an ideogram?
⬢ Picture used to represent idea or thought
⬢ Ie. Radioactive symbol- represents the idea of radioactivity
⬢ Ie. Ancient Chinese rubbings- characters represent ideas even though the may not look like it
What is a phonogram?
• Pictures or characters used to convey sounds
• Ie. Eye Sea Ewe
• Ie. Egyptian hieroglyphics
• Early 18th century- believed the language was ideographic and not sounds
• In 1799, the Rosetta Stone dates to 2200 BP, the “secret” has same text in 3 different languages (record of trade)
• Bottom is Greek, middle is handwritten script of hieroglyphics called demotic, and top is Egyptian hieroglyphics
• Demotic was found on papyrus, hieroglyphics on clay, papyrus or stone, Greek on tablets
• Greek was known and demotic was somewhat know and were found to believe they said the same thing and then concluded the top was also the same text.
What is an alphabet?
⬢ English alphabet
⬢ Phonograms reduced to minimal amount of sound
⬢ Increases flexibility of language
Upper/Lower Egypt
The Nile Valley
o Egypt
o Develops complex society only a few centuries after mesotopamia
o Egyptian civilization is entirely based on Nile
o Nile flows from south to north
o Floods gently and regularly in mid summer
o Lays down excellent silt
o It is so soft you can cultivate it without plow
o Four miles to each side of river, so long and narrow civilization
o Hot and humid in this area
o Only real source of water is nile
o Nile is source of fish, reeds (for baskets and paper), flax (linen), shellfish, and hippos, croc
o No complex society to south until much later
o To the north, the meditarrian coast with no natural harbors
 And from north no one can really get in with boat
 Or south cause no one is there
o Pharoah is supposed to be “rightful king of lower (in north) and upper (south) Egypt
o No evidence that it was really 2 separate kingdoms
o Maybe 2 cultures and lower egypt kinda moves and an everyone just adopts it
 Fayum
• Lower Egyptian site
• 7kya
• In depression near freshwater lake
• Earliest evidence for farming in nile valley
• Hunting and gathering still
• No real sites or houses, but storage pits
• No completely sedentary, do produce wheat, barely, pigs, (domest) sheep-goat (domes), cattle and sorghum
• Have seashells from meditarrian and red sea coast
o Upper Egypt
o First use of site at 7kya, continued for several thousand years
o Not a living site, not a village
o It’s a funerary settlement
 Exists for honoring and burying dead
 We see here display ornaments, painted pottery, palate (shield shape thing with pictures on)
 Lots of little figurines and jewery
 Dead are buried in distinct and separate cemetery
 Most have grave goods
 Lots of difference in grave goods
• Simple things from lower Egypt
• Or gold and imported shit
 We start to see here the major feature of Egypt of honoring dead
o 6.9-6.3kya
o Lower Egypt
o Settled agricultural village
o Same domesticated species as at pylum
o Horseshoe shaped houses
 Lower leg bone of hippo and gate are at front of horseshoe
 Independent family units for each house
 All families seem to be the same
 The standardization shows some social organization or something
o 125 burials
 Inside settlements, couple by each house (family burying near homes)
 Flexed position buried
 Not very many grave goods
 1-2 burials of adult males with a little more stuff
Step pyramid
o Peru during chavin period
o Famous for it’s burials
 The textiles people were buried in
o Mostly cotton, some wool, very sophisticated art and fabric work
o Can’t redo some of this now a day
Moche Culutre
o Has own style of art
o Absolutely beautiful ceramics
o Lots are anthropometric (made stuff looking like people)
o Don’t know a lot about moche
o Begins at about 1400 Bp
o Highly stratisfied militaristic state
o Eventually control 80 miles, 7-8 river valley
o Western south American complex society is fairly unique
 No writing
 No standardized way of keeping records
 They have Quipu
• Series of knotted strings
• Indivudalized for each person
 Transport and communication is based on people power
• So they have a system of runners
 Centralized distribution of pottery, but food is local
Moche valle
o Two pyramids (huaca)
o Here is Huaca de la Luna, and Huaca del Sol
o Luna
 Over 70 feet high
 Temple
o Sol
 130 feet high
 130million mud bricks ended
• each brick has a makers mark
• Tax in the society came in the form of bricks
 It’s the place for elites
o In between 2 periods a plaza for elites, and place for human sacrifice burials
o Pottery and artwork has rituals, militaristic, sacrifices, drinking blood, killing, torturing captives
o Most (nearly all), are adult males with partitly healed impact fractures on bones
 Probably prisoners of war
 Maybe defleshed while alive
 Some bodies have dismembered
Chavin de Huantar
Chavin de Huantar
o 2.8-2.2 kya bp
o peru
o Very large site in mountains
o Cultural center for chavin cult
o Read this part in book
o Represent the best of everything for regions of south America
o Food stuffs, craft stuffs, and stuff from high mountains, coastal areas all come together
o Start to see some exotic animals come in (jaguars, caymens (small crocodile type animal, parrots, small birds)
o In the initial period, lots of local artistic styles, but chavin period has that style all over
o Local diversity in chavin cult, but overall all practicing this cult
o Famous b/c –
 Center for chavin cult
 More recent excavations have lead to that this was built in bits in pieces
 Some construction has a secrete use
• Lots of maze like passageways, many lead to Lanzon, a stone figure, center of this cult
• It was the focus of the workship
• Some of the weird little niches or passages… like vents, these shunt around smoke and water…
o It’s like a bunch of special effects, water, sound, smoke all come from weird areas
o Most famous site for moche art
o Highly prized by collectors
o Most made by gold, and precious stone
o Burials of elites are buried in famous
o Human and animal sacrifices
o Most metalworking techniques we have today have been mastered by moche at this time
o Beautiful textiles
o Staff god is still alive
El Paraiso
o 4.5kya
o the earliest example of the U shaped ceremonial center (later is a characteristics of many sites)
o The focus of settlement, later people moved in
o Inside of ceremonial center we have mazes of rooms and passages
o Each room has a bench, hearth, and is big enough for 10-12 ppl
o Excavation tell us we might have kin rooms
o Offerings of quartz, crystals, and shells in hearth
o See snuff trays
o Snuff in this case is cocoa leaves
o Every so offen people brought stuff into the room, collapsed room and then built on top of it
o Located near mexico us boarder almost
o Mudbrick houses
 Would have taken you about a week to build
o Complex maze of rooms that interlock together with mudbrick houses
o Would have been 3-4 stories tall
o Dry deserter environment w/ flood plain nearby
o Pottery, fine china types, beads for jewelry
o Over 2000 rooms on ground floor alone
o Public architecture
o Ball court with burials below
o Running water and sewage
• The Arid Enrionment
o Near flood plain, not a lot of vegetation on hills
o Built drainages and check dam
• Paquime (aka Casas Grandes)
o Complex regional polity of northern Mexico and the American southwest
o Apex during the Medio Period AD 1250 and 1450
o Charles Di Peso’s excavations in the Late 1960’s. Concluded this site had
 Significant social stratification
 Large populations
 Economic specialization
 Coordinate construction of ritual and public architecture
Harrapan Society
Harrapan Society
o First complex society in Indus valley
o In some sense it is the last
o Full scale arigriculutre
o At about 6kya
o Urban poor, and settlements on the outside of village that feed the city
o Lots of same crops--- wheat, at some point import barely from mesopotania, domesticated sheep goat, and domesticated cattle
o Pretty sure sheep-goat is domesticated independently too
o Also have rice and millet (SE asia), however they think rice is being domesticated independently but don’t really know.. they know millet is from china though
o Major difference from mesopotania and egypt, from small agricultural villages to BOOM cities
o Architlogically, it’s like a blink of an eye
o Diffs from mesopotania because it’s very organized,
o We have massive cities, that are organized in grids
o Looks like cities were planned and built b4 people moved in them
o There is also a system for water to be brought to people’s homes
o Also a sewer system with covered drains
o Gets really big---area wise—its influence spreads as far as 1.3 million square kilometers
• Harrapan Society
o First complex society
o Indus valley
o Don’t have good record of stratigraphy
o So like 6kya-4kya (4kya is way to late)
o Harrapan society is different than Egypt cause of sewer systems, grid systems
o Pakastan
o Enormous… 40k-65-75k people
o Living quarters are large, houses are large
o Drainage and sewer system
o Street grid
o 77% of structures are houses
o Most residents live in city
o It’s hard to find the elite, most houses are same size, most people have same stuff
o Remarkably egalitarian
o Dunno what to make of this, someone was obviously in power, but dunno who
o Remaining 33% are business
 Stone tools
 Metals in late stages
 Artistic goods
 Pottery
 Lots of different industry
o Only monumental architecture… Mound of the Great Bath
The mound of the great bath
It's in Monhenjodaro
• The mound of the great Bath
o It’s a bath tube
o A little bit outside of houses and businesses… 150m away
o Tub is sitting on mound 450by90m in size
o On top of mound is giant bath
o Bath itself is 12by 7meters, 2.5meters deep
o System to get water in, and get water out, and little rooms on the sides that are maybe like cabannas or dressing rooms
o Could have been a pool?
o “Unusual”
o Small temple on mound, and small graineries (stores grains), but bath is main feature on mound
o Also have writing
Heritage: What is it? How do we legislate it?
• Talk about heritage in terms of things
• Artifacts in museums come from ground or private collections
All the jewels in the crown jewels of England came from other countries; does that mean they don’t belong to the UK?
UNESCO- United Nations Educations, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
⬢ UNESCO Conventions
o convention for the Protection of Intangible Heritage: only member in UN (122) who signed this can be ?punished?
o The convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of an armed conflict? Hague convention after WW2-Nazi Germany took many antiquities- US, Russia, and England divided everything among themselves then decided everything should go to where it originally came from
o The convention on the means of preventing the illicit import, export, and transfer of ownership of cultural property? this has to do with trade, permission from that country MUST be given
o World heritage conventions/list 1972?some things aren?t for one country but the world as a whole, also included natural items like the Amazon Rainforest Reserve
o Intergovernmental committee for promoting the return of cultural property?make sure items are returned
o Convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage 2004?for items in international waters
Case study 1 of Unesco
o During WW2, Mussolini invaded and occupied an African Nation. While there, the Italian army removed several funerary monuments from an ancient royal burial ground. The African nation can document that one of these still stands in Rome. The Axum Obelisk of Ethiopia
Case study 2 of Unesco
o Two shipments of South American artifacts, destined for the US, arrive at customs in Canada after traveling through Bolivia and Germany. The 83 items include printed ceramic vessels, textiles, and feathered objects. The Peruvian embassy claims the artifacts were looted from unexcavated tombs on the Peruvian coast the shipments have no exit paper from Peru. From a royal tomb. US has agreement with Peru that nothing can leave Peru and come to US
Case study 3 of Unesco
o A major British museum owns a geek marble frieze taken out of Greece in 1916 by a British businessman. Greece claims it was stolen from larger frieze in an archaeological structure. The museum agrees, but say since the theft predates any conventions the frieze belong to Great Britain. The British also argue that Greece is not capable of curating the frieze. Elgin Marbles
Case study 4 of Unesco
o A European museum has several stone Buddha?s taken by antiquities thieves from a SE Asian country. The international court rules in favor of the SE Asian country. However, the SE Asian country still doesn?t have them, because they can?t afford transport. Angor Wat in Cambodia is where Buddha?s are from, the site has been ravage?
Case study 5 of Unesco
o A major auction house presents several questionable items for auctions. At the culmination of a long investigation by a journalist, the auction is caught red-handed, but many of the items are already in the hands of private collectors.
o Sotheby?s scandal in London
Native American Graves Protection and Repartition Act
⬢ Enacted in 1990
⬢ Applies to any museum or university receiving federal monies
⬢ Said institutions must inventory all collections
⬢ Inventories must be made available to all federally recognized tribes
⬢ If requested, said institutions must return certain items
⬢ There is a process for recognition of tribes (need 300 members and document 7 generations of existence)
What does NAGPRA cover?
⬢ Human remains
⬢ Associated funerary objects- ie. Things found with body
⬢ Unassociated funerary objects- ie Certain types of pottery and ornaments
⬢ Sacred objects
⬢ Objects of cultural patrimony- things that are important to the identity of the culture ie. Clothing of chief of states
Kennewick Man
• Set of human remains found in kennewick Washington
• Unique because of its age, 9000 yrs ago
• Remains found is washed out bank, therefore not original burial but got washed out due to building of damn on Colombia river.
• Found by teens drinking in woodsà got policeà got coronerà called expert Jim Chatters who identified it as native American
• He thought at first it was 4000 years old, shocked when found out it was 9000. He told the press it looked Caucasian and therefore NAGPRA didn’t apply.
• However, they were repatriated but the scientists argued that being that old they couldn’t possibly belong to an existing tribe today (due to migrations and such)
• Legal battle still goes on today (been about 7-8 years) and scientists have upper hand
• Found neutral groundà Washington State University museum
• Caucasian doesn’t mean European in means of anthropology
Domesticated Plants
o Mesoamerica: maize, beans, squash, peppers, pumpkins
o North America: pigweed, goosefoot, sumpweed, sunflowers, squash, tobacco
o South America: potato, sweet potato, manioc (cassava), peanuts, tomato, cotton, gourd
o Africa
 Coffee
 Sorghum
 Pearl millet
 Rice
 Black-eyed pease
 Okra.
 (Maybe a few types of lentle)
Domesticated Animals:
o Mesoamerica: Chihuahuas
o North America: Turkey, Duck
o South America: Llamas, Alpacas, Guinea pigs
o China- Dog? Zengpiyan
o Africa
 Cattle (we know they are for sure domesticated at this place) 7.5kya
 Cats
 Probably donkey
 Probably ostrich.
Kill sites and way to get mammoth without hunting
: scavenge dead ones, wait for them to get stuck in swamps or bogs, and then stab them, drive them into swamps, bogs or over cliffs and then stab them

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