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Anatomy Test

Terms

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Further from the main part of the body
What does distal mean?
A chemical that resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added.
What is a buffer?
To the back
What does posterior mean?
To the front
What does anterior mean?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
What are fats made of?
Further from the center (of a particular system)
What does peripheral mean?
Plural (lung), Paracardium (heart), Paratanium (abdomen), Mesenery (small intestines)
What are the four types of membranes?
To the stomach side
What does ventral mean?
Energy, structure, and regulation.
What are the functions of lipids?
Organic acids containing aminegrop.
What are amino acids?
Proteins
What is an example of a hydrogen bond?
An organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5-10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.
What are cillia?
A relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. If there is only one lipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. Vesicles store, transport, or digest cellular products and waste.
What is a vesicle?
The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or "phospholipid bilayer") is a semipermeable lipid bilayer found in all cells.[1] It contains a wide variety of biological molecules, primarily proteins and lipids, which are involved in a vast array of cellular processes, and also serves as the attachment point for both the intracellular cytoskeleton and, if present, the cell wall.
What is the cell membrane?
A terpenoid lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings, generally arranged in a 6-6-6-5 fashion.
What are steroids?
Substances that dissolve in non-polar solvents (alcohol and acetone).
What are lipids?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (also phosphorous and nitrogen)
What are lipids made of?
Temperature, catalyst chemicals (molecules), and the amount of the biproduct already existing.
What things can alter chemical reaction speeds?
Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids, and Waxes
What are the types of lipids?
A tendency for solids to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (of that solute). It's an important way of transporting fluids.
What is diffusion?
Movement of substances across the cell membrane that establishes the concentration gradient.
What is secondary active transport?
A measure of the difference of concentration of a solute in a solvent between two points, divided by the distance between the two points.
What is the concentration gradient?
Above
What does superior mean?
Membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells that can serve a variety of secretory, excretory, and storage functions. Vacuoles and their contents are considered to be distinct from the cytoplasm, and are classified as ergastic according to some authors.[1] Vacuoles are especially conspicuous in most plant cells.
What is a vacuole?
Table salt
What is an example of an ionic bond?
When something is dissolved (separated) in water
What is dissassociation?
Two water molecules are weakly attracted by their negative and positive sides. The two hydrogen on one side of the oxygen atom makes that side of the water molecule positive, and the other side negative.
What is hydrogen bonding?
The breakdown of sugar glucose.
What is glycolysis?
Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
What are carbohydrates?
Further from the surface of the body
What does deep mean?
The translation of DNA into proteins.
What is translation?
A bond where electrons are shared unequally.
What is a polar covalent bond?
The movement of fluid through a partition containing small holes.
What is filtration?
Part of the intercellular communication system.
What are receptor molecules?
A cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained, as all other organelles, within the cytoplasm. It is contained in all eukaryotic cells and recent research has shown it can be present in prokaryotic cells too.[1] It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, and also has been known to protect the cell, enables cellular motion (using structures such as flagella, cilia and lamellipodia), and plays important roles in both intracellular transport (the movement of vesicles and organelles, for example) and cellular division.
What is the cytoskeleton?
The main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. It was discovered in 1888 by Theodor Boveri and was described as the 'special organ of cell division.' Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient mitosis, it has been recently shown that it is not necessary.
What is a centrosome?
A protein that is a catalyst that increases the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds.
What is an enzyme?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_%28biology%29#Eukaryotic_cells
What are the organelles and where are they?
Nucleotides
What is a nucleic acid made of?
Regulation, protein synthesis, and heretity
What is the function of nucleic acids?
A membrane-enclosed organelle that contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes make up the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression.
What is the cell nucleus?
A class of lipids, and a major component of all biological membranes, along with glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. Understanding of the aggregation properties of these molecules is known as lipid polymorphism and forms part of current academic research.
What are phospholipids?
The changing in shape of a protein due to hydrogen bonds breaking (caused by abnormally high temperatures or changes in pH).
What is denaturalization?
A solution with a pH level higher than 7. It is a protein acceptor. It has less OH (hydroxide) and more H+.
What is a base?
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1898 by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi and was named after him. The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesised by the cell. It is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells.
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
Divides the body into right and left sides, or just medial and lateral
What is the Saggital plane?
Moves substances across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient.
What is active transport?
A long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. In prokaryotes, they may function to propel the cell by beating in a whip-like motion; in larger animals, they often serve to move fluids along mucous membranes such as the lining of the trachea.
What are flagella?
The smallest carbohydrate. They are also called "simple sugars." Glucose and fructose are simple sugars.
What are monosaccharides?
Divides anterior and posterior
What is the Frontal (Coronal) plane?
A gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells. Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is kept separate from the cytoplasm by a double membrane layer. The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions. The cytosol is the gooey, semi-transparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended. Cytosol makes up about 70% of the cell and is composed of water, salts, organic molecules, and enzymes that are necessary for the cell to catalyze reactions.[1] The organelles are the metabolic machinery of the cell and are like little organs themselves. The major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol consists of the mitochondria, proteins, ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. The inclusions are chemical substances that store nutrients, secretory products and pigment granules. [2]
What is the cytoplasm?
Sugar (or monosaccharide)
What are nucleotides made of?
The diffusion of water across a semi-permiable membrane.
What is osmosis?
An organelle that contains digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane surrounding a lysosome prevents the digestive enzymes inside from destroying the cell. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents. They are built in the Golgi apparatus. The name lysosome derives from the Greek words lysis, which means dissolution or destruction, and soma, which means body. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or "suicide-sacs" by cell biologists due to their role in autolysis.
What is a lysosome?
The proteins that support the cell and enable the cell to change shape.
What is the cytoskeleton?
The most common type of fat molecule.
What are triglycerides?
A solution with a pH level lower than 7. It is a protein donor. It has less OH (hydroxide) and more H+.
What is an acid?
A sub-organelle of the cell nucleus, which itself is an organelle. A main function of the nucleolus is the production and assembly of ribosome components. The nucleolus is roughly spherical, and is surrounded by a layer of condensed chromatin. No membrane separates the nucleolus from the nucleoplasm.
What is the nucleolus?
The cell intakes substances by forming around it
What is exocytosis?
Amino acids
What are proteins made of?
A bond where one atom releases electrons and the other takes them. These atoms will separate in water (one being positively charged, the other negatively charged).
What is an ionic bond?
The genetic material of a cell
What is DNA?
The uptake of material through the cell membrane by a vesicle
What is endocytosis?
A larger carbohydrate. Two monosaccharides that form together. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide.
What are disaccharides?
A membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells.[1] Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants," because they generate most of the cell's supply of ATP, used as a source of chemical energy. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells possess only a single mitochondrion, while others can contain several thousand mitochondria.[2][3]
What is a mitochondria?
The thing that contains the nucleus
What is the nuclear envelope?
Serves as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protected.
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Closer to the main part of the body
What does proximal mean?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_biosynthesis
What is protein synthesis?
An organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral membrane proteins), or to be secreted (exocytosed) from the cell (e.g., digestive enzymes); sequestration of calcium; and production and storage of glycogen, steroids, and other macromolecules.[1] The endoplasmic reticulum is part of the endomembrane system. The basic structure and composition of the ER membrane is similar to the plasma membrane.
What is the Endoplasmic reticulum?
Divides top and bottom
What is the Transverse plane?
Spaces within the cell that provide movement throughout the cell.
What are membrane channels?
Closer to the surface of the body
What does superficial mean?
A tissue that can contract. Contains the proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement.
What is the function of muscle tissue?
Adds support and structure to the body
What is the function of connective tissue?
The copy of the DNA made in transcription.
What is messenger RNA?
Below
What does inferior mean?
Regulation, structure, energy, concentration, transport, protection
What do proteins do?
The sum of all the chemical reactions in the cell.
What is the cell metabolism?
A small, dense, functional structure found in all known cells that assemble proteins. It catalyses the assembly of protein chains by reading messenger RNAs and binding amino acids that are attached to transfer RNA molecules.
What are ribosomes?
Has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. It is connected to the nuclear envelope. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant) and it serves different functions in each. The Smooth ER also contains the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphatase which converts Glucose-6-phosphate to Glucose, a step in gluconeogenesis. The Smooth ER consists of tubules and vesicles that branch forming a network. In some cells there are dilated areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is known for its storage of calcium ions in muscle cells.
What is smooth ER?
The process by which a cell duplicates its genetic information (DNA), in order to generate two, identical, daughter cells.
What is mitosis?
Directly through phospholipid membrane (by dissolving into the phosopholipid bilayer), membrane channels, carrier molecules (glucose, amino acids), and vesicles
How do molecules pass through membranes?
A barrel shaped organelle[1] found in most eukaryotic cells, though absent in higher plants and fungi.[2] The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules. Deviations from this include Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets.[citation needed] These make for more stable structures than unmodified tubulin. An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly, constitutes the compound structure known as the centrosome.[1]
What is a centriole?
A section of DNA
What are codons?
MRNA, TRNA, and RRNA
What are the three types of RNA?
Functions to move large water molecules across the cell membrane
What are carrier mediated transport mechanisms?
Closer to the center (of a particular system)
What does central mean?
Closer to one side of the body
What does lateral mean?
A large carbohydrate. Many monosaccharides that bond into a long chain. Glycogen or animal starch are examples of this.
What are polysaccharides?
To the back side
What does dorsal mean?
Protect surfaces/organs from contact, friction, and wear and tear
What do membranes do?
Generates and conducts electrical signals in the body.
What is the function of nerve tissue?
A bond where atoms share electrons.
What is a covalent bond?
The copying of DNA for protein synthesis.
What is transcription?
Studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance (hence its name).[2] But it should be noted that these ribosomes are not resident of the endoplasmic reticulum initially. The ribosomes only bind to the ER once it begins to synthesize a protein destined for sorting. [3] The free ribosome begins producing the polypeptide until a cytosolic signal recognition particle recognizes the pre-piece of 5-15 hydrophobic AAs preceded by a positively charged (basic) amino acid. This makes it easy for the complex to loop the sequence through the hydrophobic membrane. The pre-piece is then cleaved off.
What is rough ER?
Connective, muscle, nerve, epithelial
What are the four types of tissue?
Closer to the center of the body
What does medial mean?
Energy storage molecules. Also pad and insulate the body.
What are fats?
The force required to prevent the movement of water across a semi-permiable membrane.
What is osmotic pressure?

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