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APUSH midterm


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Walt Whitman
Wrote "Leaves of Grass" which he gave free reign to his gushing genius with what he called a "barbaric yawp" dispensed with titles, stanzas, rhymes, and at times even regular meter.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
1842 in Massachusetts; First judgement in the United States that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Am. Anti-Slavery Society
Main activist arm of the United States abolition movement, which sought an immediate end to slavery in the country. Promoted the formation of state and local auxiliaries to agitate for abolition. In 1839, it split into two factions: a radical group led by Garrison that denounced the Constitution as supportive of slavery and a moderate faction led by Tappan that led to the Liberty Party.
Grimke Sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Laird Rams (John Laird)
(ships with iron rams) didn't use them after Adams said that US could wage major war against Britain if they used ship in northern blockade
term used by Southerners in the Reconstruction era for fellow Southerners who either supported Republican Reconstruction policies or gained economically as a result of those policies.
Phineas T. Barnum
Master showman who had early discovered that "the public likes to be humbugged" joined hands with James A. Bailey in 1881 to stage the "Greatest Show on Earth".
Cyrus McCormick
contributed to the most wonderful contraption, the mechanical mower reaper. Could do work of 5 men.
Francis Parkman
(1823-1893) Historian whose eyes were so defective that he wrote in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine, penned a brilliant series of volumes beginning in 1851.
James Buchanan
democrat, succeeded Pierce as president of US Southern influence and approved Lecompton Constitution divided the Democratic Party by staying loyal to the Union.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
" Peculiar Institution"
Euphemistic term that white southerners used for slavery. Term came into general use in the 1830s when the abolitionist followers of William Lloyd Garrison began to attack slavery. Its implicit message was that slavery in the United States South was different from the very harsh slave systems existing in other countries and that southern slavery had no impact on those living in northern states.
National Banking Act
First step toward a unified national banking network since 1836; sale of government bonds and established standard note currency
Burned-Over District
Western New York where New England puritans settled had sermons preached "hellfire and damnation".
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo
Peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. Mexico gave Texas the Rio Grande boundary, California, and New Mexico-$15 million for the territory.
Industrial Revolution
The period where western expansion and urbanization happened in America distinguished by factories, new inventors improved transportation, communication and production.
Am. Colonization Society
In 1817, anti-slavery activists goal was to remove both free and enslaved African Americans from the United States and transport them to Africa. Believed that only after implementation of such a drastic solution could racial conflict in the United States be brought to an end.
Group of people part of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Followed Joseph Smith.
Sojourner Truth
First black woman orator to speak out against slavery. Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best known abolitionists of her day.
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Charles Francis Adams
American diplomat who helped keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy; Instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations. (union)
Military Reconstruction Act
1867- Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
John C. Calhoun
Part of the "immortal trio"; "Great Nullifer, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its right as a minority view that presidents elected, one from south and one from north."
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Doctor who taught anatomy with a sparkle at Harvard Medical School, a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit. Nonconformist and a fascinating conversationalist, he shone among a group of literary lights who regarded Boston as "the hub of the universe."
Peter Cartwright
Best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" (traveling frontier preachers). Sinewy servant of the Lord ranged for half-century from Tennessee to Illinois, calling upon sinners to repent.
12 hour fight ranks as the bloodiest single day of the war, with more than 10,000 confederate casualties and even more on the Union side.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Greek name means "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Transportation Revolution
By 1850s, railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time.
Fire Eaters
extreme advocates of southern rights. They raided Irish canal workers, lynched and whipped slaves in 1860, reckless.
Brigham Young
Led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Desert. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
Knickerbocker Group
Blazed brilliantly across the literacy heavens, enabled America for the first time of a literature to match its boast magnificent landscapes.
The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despited having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist and friend of Emerson who lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. On Civil Disobedience, he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and spent a night in jail. Extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
14th amendment
Ratified in 1868, this amendment stated that "all persons born or naturalized in the US" were citizens. In addition, all former Confederate supporters were prohibited from holding office in the US.
James Russell Lowell
Ranks as one of America's better poets; distinguished essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat. Remembered as a political satirist in his Biglow Papers especially those of 1846 dealing with the Mexican War.
John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
David Farragut
American naval officer who had a victory at Mobile Bay admiral in the US Navy; Placed in the first rank of naval heroes; first US Navy rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral
Louisa May Alcott
Grew up in Concord, Massachusetts in the bosom of transcendentalism. Worked as a seamstress, governess, teacher and housemaid until her writing finally brought her success. Wrote Little Women
Panic of 1857
The California gold rush increased inflation; speculation in land and railroads " ripped economic fabric"; hit the North harder than South because the South had cotton as a staple source of income; the North wanted free land from the government; drove Southerners closer to a showdown; caused and increase in tariffs; gave Republicans an issue for the election of 1860.
Eli Whitney
He built the cotton gin in 1793 within 10 days which affected the whole world.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A wisp of a woman and the mother of a half dozen children. Published her heartrendering novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which awakened the North to the wickedness of slavery.
Manifest Destiny
Concept that stated the United States was destined to expand across the continent and get as much land as possible. (ocean to ocean)
Theodore David Weld
Devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs to Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as it is " (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
"Bleeding Kansas"
Kansas Border War. following the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri (Border Ruffians) crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered anti-slavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious John Brown's 1856 attack on the Pottawatomie-Creek. War continued for 4 years before antislavery forces won. Helped precipitate the Civil War.
John C. Fremont
Leader of the Bear Flag Revolt in California; helped overthrow Mexicans in revolt
William Lloyd Garrison
Militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slaveholders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
Missouri Compromise
It forbade in the proposed territory of Nebraska, but was repealed by Douglas. Missouri-slave; Maine-free
Lone Star Republic
Name of Texas before annexed to the United States when Texas was its own country.
George B. McClellan
general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
American (Know Nothing) Party
formed by protestant who were alarmed by the increase of immigrants from Ireland and Germany. Opposed immigration and Catholic influence. Answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing"
Kansas-Nebraska Act
let slavery in Kansas and Nebraska would be decided upon popular sovereignty
Dred Scott
slave who sued for freedom based on resident on free soil, but the Congress ruled in favor of the master
Edgar Alan Poe
Gifted lyric poet. Wrote "The Raven"; master stylist, he also excelled in the short story especially horror type, in which he shared his alcoholic nightmares with fascinated readers. Wrote "The Gold Bug".
Washington Irving
First American to win international recognition as a literary figure. Wrote "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow". Combined pleasing style with delicate charm and quiet humor.
Winfield Scott
General in the Mexican-War; " Old Fuss and Feathers" ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.
"Higher Law" (Seward)
the power president Taylor fell under, he vetoed every compromise sent to him, using power to advantage.
Daniel Webster
proposed that all reasonable compromise should be made with the south and that a new fugitive slave law be formed; supported the Wilmot Proviso because he thought blacks couldn't pick cotton
Southern Nationalism
South felt as a nation and not part of the "hostile" north; also felt as a different country than a section
Charles G. Finney
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800s. He helped establish the Oberlin Theology. His emphasis on disinterested benevolence helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
Sam Houston
President of Texas who calls for annexation.
Lord Ashburton
Non-professional diplomat sent to Washington to negotiate with Daniel Webster a treaty to get a road for Britain. "Ash-Burton Webster treaty".
"Spot" Resolution
Resolution by Lincoln that required to get information on the specific "spot" where American blood had been shed on American soil.
Franklin Pierce
Democratic candidate that won the election of 1852, his election marked end of Whig party (expansionist)
10% Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th amendment which outlawed slavery.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
Nativists rallied for political action made the order which soon developed into the formidable American or "Know Nothing" party.
Principle that seemed to apply to many southerners, they felt that they were not doing anything wrong or immoral
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot by himself or a soldier.
Thomas J. Jackson
"Stonewall", Lee's chief lieutenant, killed by own men at Chancellersville.
Wade-Davis Bill
1864- declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it.
Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave owning whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
"radical" regimes
hated "bluebellies" remained until the new Republican regimed appeared to be firmly entrenched. successful in speeding up Reconstruction (reconstruction took over)
Henry Clay
"Great Pacificator" proposed the series of compromises suggested North enact a stricter fugitive slave law
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840s and 1850s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Herman Melville
Wrote Moby Dick; he rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny.
Free Soil Party
wanted opposition to any kind of slavery; enough influence over north argued that with slavery, wage labor would wither away.
Noah Webster
Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee who was known as the "Schoolmaster of the Republic"; devoted 20 years to his famous dictionary, published in 1828 which helped standardize the American language.
"Lowell System"
Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, and the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives.
Frederick Douglas
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War.
"swing around the circle"
speaking campaign of Andrew Johnson to gain support of his mild Reconstruction policies. lost more support than gained.
"Conquered Provinces"
represented the most extreme viewpoints of Radical Republicans. actions of Southern states and Southern individuals had been so criminal they had shattered the Constitution. If the Constitution did not apply, then Congress had the right to reconstruct Southern states in any way it chose. Southern states must be treated as conquered provinces under international law.
Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Democrats in Congress in the first years of the Civil War who opposed Abraham Lincoln and the North's attack on the South, claiming that the war would result in massive numbers of freed slaves entering the North and a total disruption of the Northern economy.
Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Series of 7 debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
New England Immigrant Aid Society
promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
A semisecret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords, served in America as a benevolent society, aiding the downtrodden.
Edwin M. Stanton
served as secretary of war under A. Lincoln during Civil War. dismissed by Johnson who got impeached because he violated Tenure of Office Act
John Crittenden
Senator from Kentucky, who desperately wanted to prevent the Civil War in December 1860 by the Crittenden Compromise proposal.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance, spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the abolitionists.
Merrimack and Monitor
First engagement ever between two iron clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on Merrimac-Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship was the CSS Virginia.
Hinton R. Helper
wrote "Impending Crisis of the South"; hated slavery and blacks tried to approach differently by saying slave holders were the ones suffering most from slavery
Elizabeth Blackwell
Pioneer in a previously forbidden profession for women; first female graduate of a medical college. Doctor.
Clement Vallandigham
Ohio congressman who was notorious among the Copperheads. He was convicted by a military tribunal in 1863 for treasonable utterances and was then sentenced to prison.
Napoleon III
proclaimed himself as emperor of France 1848 elected instituted reform, rebuilt Paris; Tried to set up a French-Mexican Empire and Franco Prussian war, which resulted in his disposition sent Maximillian to Mexico disobeyed Monroe Doctrine
Clipper Ships
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Harriet Tubman
black woman, after escaping slavery made 19 journeys back to the south to help 300 slaves escape. "Underground Railroad"; Moses among blacks
Popular Sovereignty
This compromise solution was that the residents of each territory had a determining factor of whether it was a free or slave state.
Samuel Morse
Developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
John J. Audubon
Naturalist who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat. Birds of America received considerable popularity.
Trent Affair
1861, the Union warship stopped a British mail steamer and forcibly two confederate diplomats. Mason and Slidell got captured.
Louis Agassiz
Distinguished French-Swiss immigrant served for a quarter of a century at Harvard College. Student of biology who sometimes carried snakes in his pockets, he insisted on original research and deplored the reigning overemphasis on memory work.
Women's Rights Convention
Convention for women advocates at Seneca Falls to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women. "All men and women are created equal" -Declaration of Sentiments
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Mother of seven who had insisted on leaving "obey" out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wrote The Scarlet Letter; originally a transcendentalist but later became a leading anti-transcendentalist.
Hudson's Bay Company
It was at one time the largest landowner in the world. From its longtime headquarters at York Factory on Hudson Bay, it controlled fur trade throughout much of British-controlled North America for several centuries, undertaking early exploration.
Millard Filmore
took presidency when Taylor died in 1850, a colorless and conciliatory New York lawyer-politician took over the reins
Cotton Gin
Machine that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. Separated cotton from seed.
Robert E. Lee
The General of the Confederate troops; he was prosperous in many battles; was defeated at Antietam in 1862 when he retreated across the Potomac; this halt of Lee's troops justified Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; he was defeated at Gettysburg by General Mead's Union troop; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
Belief in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Cotton Kingdom
Cotton-producing region of the southern United States up until the Civil War. Section remained indeliblytied to and controlled by plantation agriculture. This was the employment of slave labor.
"Conscience" Whigs
Stand in association with Free Soil Party; oppose to slavery
Pony Express
Carried mail speedily the two-thousand lonely miles from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Daring, lightweight riders, leaping onto wiry ponies saddled at stations approximately ten miles apart, could make the trip in an amazing ten days.
William H. Seward
secretary of state who handled diplomatic situations after Civil War, purchased Alaska
Am. Temperance Society
Formed at Boston in 1826. Group implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children's clubs, known as the "Cold Water Army".
Black Codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
John Brown
american abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. Increased tension between North and South. Leader of John Brown's raid and Pottawatomie-Creek massacre. "CRAZY"
Jefferson Davis
President of Confederacy in 1861.
Draft Riots
Federal Militia Act of 1862 and confederate conscription Act of 1862 caused riot in 1863 about the process of drafting soldiers-impeded themselves establishment of drafts prompted volunteering; afraid that blacks were gonna take jobs when gone; Irish American
Civil Rights Act
(1866) Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
Stephen A. Douglas
"Little Giant"- proposed the territory of Nebraska to be sliced into Nebraska and Kansas
Lane Rebels
In 1832, Theodore Dwight Weld went to the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio. The seminary was presided over by Lyman Beecher. Weld and some of his comrades were kicked out for their actions of anti-slavery. The young men were known as the "Lane Rebels." They helped lead and continue the preaching of anti-slavery ideas.
15th amendment
Ratified in 1870, this amendment stated that a person could not be denied the right to vote because of the color of their skin or whether or not they had been a slave. This extended the rights of blacks to vote to the North; some in the women's movement opposed the amendment on the grounds that it did nothing for the rights of women.
Dorthea Dix
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
Harper's Ferry Raid
1859, John Brown seized the US arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
George Meade
1815-1872 Union Civil War General who was appointed brigadier general of US volunteers when the Civil War Began. Meade faced Lee's army (75000) near Gettysburg and won.
Morrill Tariff Act
raised tariff roles to increase revenue and protect American manufacturers. Intiated a Republican program of high protective tariffs to help industrialists.
Joint Resolution
Passed to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation; a legislative measure which requires approval by Senate and House and presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.
Tenure of Office Act
1866- Enacted by radical, Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Elijah J. Lovejoy
Abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and he was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
said that neither America nor Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any isthmus waterway. (waterway between two bodies of land)
Cult of Domesticity
Widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker.
Maine Law
A law Neal Dow secured in 1851 which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
John Tyler
Vice President to Henry Harrison, president after Harrison's death, vetoed Bank of the United States, lowered tariff
Fugitive Slave Law
more strictly enforced; North was a hunting ground for slaves and slaves denied a trial by jury and other protections
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Gave Britain their desired Halifax-Quebec route for a road while America got more land north of Maine as well as readjustment of US-Canada border.
William McGuffey
A teacher-preacher of rare power. His grade-school readers, first published in 1830s, sold 122 million copies in the following decades. McGuffey's Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.
Lucretia Mott
Sprightly Quaker whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London antislavery convention of 1840 were not recognized.
Declaration of Sentiments
Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.
Preston Brooks
senator that beaten by Charles Sumner to unconciousness for denouncing his pro-slavery opinion
Term used by Southerners to mock Northerners who came to the South to gain either financially or politically during the Reconstruction era.
A British ship built for confederate commerce raiders which caught 60 vessels from the north until it sane
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
James K. Polk
Dedicated to Democratic Party, favored American expansion, follower of Andrew Jackson, slaveowning southerner, "dark horse" candidate for president, got everything done the way he said he would
Horace Mann
Brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. Secretary of Massachusettes Board of Education, campaigned effectively for more and better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
Clara Barton
Union nurse during Civil War "angel of the battlefield"; helped the union obtain medical supplies; founded the American Red Cross
Lewis Cass
Democratic candidate for 1848 election, 1844 election; originator of popular sovereignty; veteran of 1812 war
Andrew Johnson
Southerner from Tennessee, as Vice President, when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first US president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
Brothers born in Northampton, Massachusetts who united with Theodore D. Weld to form the American Anti-Slavery Society. Brothers also gave financial support to Oberlin College in Ohio.
Nat Turner
Black priest; led a revolt in Virginia 1831, killed sixty people (mostly women and children). This scared the southerners because it was the first really violent action of the slaves. As a result, slave codes were made stricter.
Robert Fulton
Famous inventor who designed and built America's first steamboat the Clermont in 1807. Also built Nautilus, first practical submarine.
Lecompton Constitution
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. rejected; said people were not allowed to vote for or against the Constitution as a whole but either with "slavery" or "no slavery". If they voted with slavery then the owners with slaves would be protected.
"King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton.
Constitutional Union Party
"Do nothings" "Old Gentlemen's" consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings; met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidated was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."
Compromise of 1850
devised by Henry Clay in order to settle land disputes between North and South. California admitted a free state slave traded abolished in DC
Crittenden Compromise
Offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36*30' line, non interference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Aroostook War
Boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick in 1838 to 1839. Issue settled by Webster Ashburton treaty.
Charles Sumner
abolitionist, senator of Massachussetts condemned pro-slavery men including senator Preston Brooks who hated him to unconciousness because of that
DeWitt Clinton
Governor whose grand project was the Erie Canal which linked the Great Lakes to the Hudson River.
Abraham Lincoln
(Old Abe or Honest Abe) self educated Kentuckian; Springfield lawyer. Republicans chose him to run against Douglas in 1858 election. Although he loss victory to senatorship that year, Lincoln came to be one of the most prominent northern politicians and emerge as a Republican nominee for president. Although he won the presidential elections of 1860, he was a minority and sectional president. (no ballot forlo southern states). Lincoln winning this elections have South Carolinans an excuse to secede from the Union and caused South to completely break from the North.
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Ulysses S. Grant
Northern general who helped gain victory for the union. His first successful victories came at Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson on Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in February 1862. These victories opened a door for the Union to the rest of the south. Eventually Grant was given command of the Union forces attacking Vicksburg. This would be his greatest victory of the War. Grant was mad General-in chief after several more impressive victories near Chattanooga. Grant's final victory came when he defeated General Robert E. Lee at Richmond and forced him to surrender at Appamattox Court House in Virginia in April 1865.
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Bear Flag Revolt
Fight between Mexico and the United States for California: US victory
Robert Owen
A wealthy and idealistic Scottish textile manufacturer founded in 1825; a communal society of about 1000 people at New Harmony, Indiana.
George Pickett
(1825-1875) Confederate army officer, born in Virginia. Pickett's division spearhead a charge against the Union center.
Walker Tariff
A tariff for revenue bill that reduced that rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%.
James Fenimore Cooper
First American novelist to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable. Married into a wealthy family, he settled down on the frontier of New York. Reading one day to his wife from an insipid English novel, remarked with disgust that he could write a better book (challenged by his wife he did). Wrote The Spy, Leatherstocking Tales and Last of the Mohicans.
James Gadsden
negotiated already in 1853 and ensued Gadsen Purchase which ceded to the US for $10 million
"Molly Maguires"
A shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the Pennsylvania coal districts in the 1860s and 1870s.
Henry Wads. Longfellow
One of the most popular poets ever produced in America. Writing for the genteel classes, he was adopted by the less cultured masses. Admired poems- Evangeline, Song of Hiawatha and Courtship of Miles Standish.
John C. Breckenridge
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states rights. (1821-1875)
Alamo/San Jacinto
Alamo- Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force. San Jacinto- surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexico 1500 dead 1000 captured Texans 4 dead.
Matthew C. Perry
Commodore who steamed into harbor Tokyo in 1854; said "We have met the enemy and they are ours: two ships, two brigs, one sloop and a schooner."; persuaded the Japanese in 1854 to sign a memorable treaty
Freedman's Bureau
1865- agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Salmon P. Chase
Chase was US secretary of the Treasury for the first 3 years of Abraham Lincoln's term where he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Presided over Johnson's 1868 impeachment trial.
provided the necessities for Black farmers. Store keepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the store keeper took a mortgage on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
Tammany Hall
Gaelic newcomers soon began to gain control of powerful city machines.
Second Great Awakening
As many as 25000 people would gather for an encampment of several days to drink the hell fire gospel as served up by an itinerant preacher swept more people than the first.
Hudson River School
American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes. School during transcendentalism.
Tariff of 1842
Protective Whig tariff to help raise the average tariff to 40%.
General Incorporation Law
Laws that said no need to apply for charter from legislative to start a corporation.
David Wilmot
Proposed the amendment that stated the territory from Mexico should remain free. -Wilmot Proviso
Emma Willard
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Underground Railroad
secret network of antislavery northerners who illegally helped fugitive slaves escape to free states or Canada; contributed to hostility between North and South
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Ex Parte Milligan
1866- Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are in operative of the region is under marshall law.
Catharine Beecher
Unmarried daughter of a famous preacher and sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, who tirelessly urged women to enter the teaching profession.
Stephen Foster
Made a valuable contribution to American folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of the slaves.
Susan B. Anthony
Militant lecturer for women's rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets.
"all of Mexico"
Movement by senators that wanted the United States to include "all of Mexico" in the treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo but failed.
Interchangable Parts
That each machine has assembled parts. Became the basis of modern mass-production, assembly methods.
13th amendment
1865 amendment abolishing slavery in the US and all of its territories (Emancipation Proclamation had only ended slavery in the Confederate states). Final approval of this amendment depended on ratification by newly constructed legislatures in eight states that were former members of the Confederacy.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that caused many people to support the north in the war and fight slavery.
Force Acts
1870 and 1871; created to put a stop to the torture and harassment of blacks by whites, especially by hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. These acts gave power to the government to use its forces to physically end the problems.
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862; Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
William T. Sherman
commanded the Union army in Tennessee. In September 1864 his troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. He then headed to take Savannah. This was his famous "march to the sea." His troops burned barns and houses, and destroyed the countryside. His march showed a shift in the belief that only military targets should be destroyed. Civilian centers could also be targets.
Wilmot Proviso
Proposal for slavery to be banned in land acquired from Mexican War. (David Wilmot)
Liberty Party
(1840-1848) United States political party formed by a splinter group of abolitionists. In opposition to political action as a futile way to end slavery. 1844, the party had influenced undecided legislators in many local elections to adopt anti-slavery stands. In 1848, it dissolved when many of its members joined the Barnburners to form the Free Soil Party.
Samuel Slater
Father of the Factory System in America. Skelled British mechanic of 21 who was attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with the textile machines.
Descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California.
"Seward's Folly"
In December 1866, the US offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in US hands. The purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the US Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Bull Run
Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War-both sides were ill-prepared.
Instructed by Napoleon III to go to Mexico and establish French empire in 1864; unsuccessful in creating a Mexican-French empire.
American steamer that was attacked in New York and set on fire by British Force.
Union Party
all of the Republicans and the war democrats. excluded the copperheads and peace democrats. It was formed out of fear of the republican party losing control. It was responsible for nominating Lincoln.
Oneida Community
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.

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