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River Valley Civilizations


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importance of location
soils were rich for farming and water was available for irrigation
What is the transition in civilizations
hunter/gatherer, bands, farming villiages, cities, city-states, empire
indus valley geography
the indain subcontinent includes India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, located near the indus and ganges river
a ruler of one city-state conquered other city-states
the belief of many gods
land between the rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)
Sumer afterlife
Negative afterlife- fereocious and unpredictable floods that brought destruction during their time on Earth convinced Sumerians that their afterlife would be a place of suffering
indus valley economy
nostly agricultural, wheat, barley, and peas, developed an extensive trading network that extended to other civilizations
cause of city-states
as the citties expanded in size, they came to exercise political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
dynastic Cycle
rise and fall of dynasties based on the Mandate of heaven
Mandate of Heaven
power to rule cmoes form the gods
Sumer Geography
recieved little rain, soil was rich due to layers of silt depositd by the two rivers, the flling was irregular, they had to build irrigation and drainage ditches for farming
ancestor worship
believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family
divided empire into 20 provinces (people in each province practiced their own religion, spoke their own language, and followed many of their own laws
were remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers.
scorned Egyptian religion, ordered images to be burned,etc.- which made the Persian Empire to appear weak
huang he religion
ancestor worship- believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family, oracle bones- animal bones or tortoise shells to on which priest scratched questions for the gods
son of Cyrus
is located where modern day iran is
sumer social classes
nobles- royal and priestly officals and their families, commoners- the the nobles' subjects who worked for the palace and temple estates and other free citizens who worked as farmers, merchants, fishers, scribes,and crafts people,farmers,slaves-belonged to palace officials for building projects, tempel officials for weaveing cloth and grind grain, and rich landowners for farming and domestic work
established an efficent and well-organized administration
were the basic units of Sumerian civilization
Cyrus the great
he was a kind conquerer- he did not allow his soldiers to burn and pillage conquered cities and honored local customs and religions
shang government
king- appointed chieftains to rule overe territories and controlled the armies
Result of death of Moses
the Hebrews reterned to Canaan (Palestine)- where Abraham had lived ( this land was promised to tem by god.)
Sumer ziggurats
built temples for the priest and priestesses who served the gods, they were also served as the political and economic center
sumer government
viewed kingship as divine in orgin-kings derived their power from the gods and were servants of the gods.
oracle bones
animal bones or tortoise shells on which priest scratched questions for the gods
Sumer Land
lacked barriers to protect it from invasion, many groups invaded and conquered portions of ___.
a group of states controlled by one ruler (emperor)
Huang He geography
located near the huang he and yangzi rivers, had unpredictable floods, had natural barriers withc isolated china from all other civilizations- east-pacific ocean, west- taklimaken desert, and teh icy 14300 ft. plateau of tibet, southwest- himalaya mt., north- gobi desert and the mongolian plateau
Sumer Religion
each city-state was linked to a god or goddeses because the believed that the gods owned the cities
indus valley cities
large cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, planned icties on a grid system, which included a fortified area known as a citadel, they had seperate residential destricts, buildings were constucted of oven baked bricks cut in standard sizes, had sophisticated plumbing and sewage sytem, which suggests of athe presence a strong central govt.
god had promised to protect abraham and his descendants
egyptians preserved a corpse by embalming and drying teh corpse to prevent it from decaying
Royal road
1677 miles
farming villages
surplus food
Ten Commandments
basis for the Civil and religious laws of Judaism
sumer writing
the first system of writing was cuneiform- the wedge-shaped system of writing(clay tablets)The writing evolved from pictures of concrete objects to simplifeid and stylized sign which paved the for a phonetic system, they also used wring for record keeping
egypt geography
believed that the pharaoh bare full responsibility for the kingdom's well-being
egypt social classes
Ruling class- pharaoh and an upper class of nobles and priests-ran the govt. and manaaged its own land estates, merchants and artisans, peasant farmers and unskilled laborers, slaves
spend first three years of his reign putting down revolts
Cyrus the Great
extended rule from Indus River in the east to Anatolia (Turkey)
indus valley government
did not have a centralized monarchy, had a collection of 1500 towns and cities loosely connected by ties of trade and alliance.
led Hebrews out of slavery he also received the texn Commandments from god
Huang He family/ society
family was central to society, most important virtue was respec for one's parents, elder men in the family controlled the family's property. Women were treated as inferiors( obey their fathers, husbands, and later their own sons) Chief loyalty through out life was to the family
produced a number of goods- purple dye, glass, wine, and lumber
fled Egypt between 1500 and 1200 B.C.E. (exodus)- led by Moses
egyptian god like kings which stood at the center of egypt's religion as well as its govt. and army
Hammurabi's code
a law code, penalties for criminal offenses were severe and varied according to the socails class of the victim, principal of retaliation was fundamental to this system
Huang He social classes
Nobles-landowners(artistocrats)- made war and served as government officials, merchants and artisans, peasants- worked the noble's land, slaves
4 river valley civilizations
Sumer (Mesopotamia), Egypt, Indus Valley, Huang He, shang and zhou dynasties
indus valley religion
artifacts reveal links to modern Hindu culture, figures show what mays be representations of Shiva, other figures relate to a mother gododess, fertility images and the worship of cattle.
sumer technology
used geometry to measure fields and erect buildings, developed a # system in base 60, from which stem the moderns untis for measuring time, calender based on 12 lunar months, invented the wheel, the sail,and the plow, first to use bronze
Sumer city-states
Eridu,Ur, Uruk, Umma,Lagash
Phoenicia's greatest legacy
the alphabet ( phoenicians developed a writing system that used symbols to represent sounds- phonetic) From the Greek alphabet was derived the Roman alphabet that we still use today
agricultural revolution
transition from hunting and gathering to farming
supervised egypt- reported to the pharaoh and was responsible for the bureaucacy and its numberous departments
Winter monsoons
from oct. to may- blows dry air across the continent
never united into a country instead founded city-states around the Mediterranean (Byblos, Tyre, and Siden)
was located mainly in an area now known as Lebanon
Satrap (governor)
Each province was ruled by a _____ and had common coins
seized the throne in 522-521 B.C.E
extended persian Empire by conquering egypt
spring monsoons
from june to sept.- blows moisture from the ocean over the continent
based ther empier on tolerance and diplomacy- relied on a strong military to back up their policies
rosetta stone
hieroglyphics and greek
Huang He writing
each character stands for an idea, there are no links between spoken and written language, written language was the same everywhere ( unifying force), Literate- 1000 character, Scholar- 10000 characters
plateau of Iran
Persians settled in ...
zhou government
king- total control an dwas served by a growing bureacacy tha tincluded ministries responsible for rites education, law and public works.
sumer economy
agricultural, som commerce and industry, produced woolen textiles,pottery, and metalwork
Cyrus the great
he conquered the entire Fertile cresent and most of Anatolia
persian religion
the belief in a single god
Hebrews settled in ...
egypt technology
geometry- survey and reset property boundaries after the annual floods, pyramids- accurate calculations and measurements, calendar
part of the old testament- holy book
a series of rulers from a single family
huang he technology
silk, iron-weapons and agricultural tools.
egypt writing
wrote on papyrus by using hieroglyphics- pics represent ideas
tombs of pharaohs
to supply land with water by means of ditches or channels
Mediterranean coast
Phoenicians settled in...
father fo the Hebrew people
egypt religion
They had sun and land gods, Osiris god ot the dea weight each dead person's heart- to win eternal life, the heart could be no heavier than a feather, they buried corpse in tombs with earthly possessions to assist them in the afterlife
migrated to Egypt because of drought and the threat of starvation, Later, they were forced into slavery by the egyptians
sumer kings
led armies, initiated legislation, supervised the building of public works, provided courts, and organized workers for the irrigatation projects
egypt geography
Nile River is the longest river in the world it begins in central africa and flows northward, the annual flooding in sept. and oct. leave a deposit of silt that creates an area of rich soil. civilization remained more rural, it had natural barriers

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