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World Civ-for scientist, composer, artist, and writer test


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William Harvey
*described circulation of blood for 1st time.
*showed how the heart serves as a pump to force blood through veins and arteries.
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek
*Dutch inventor
*perfected the microscope
*1st human to see cells and microorganisms.
courtly art and architecture:
grand, complex style

*huge, colorful, and full of excitement. Glorified battle scenes or the lives of saints.
style of art and architecture
*personal, elegant, and charming. Furniture and tapestries featured delicate shells and flowers.
Rembrandt van Rijn
*dutch painter
*conferred great dignity on merchants and other ordinary, middle-class subjects.
*painted many portraits of middle class people.
What kind of new musical entertainment evolved during this era?
Ballets and Operas
Johann Sebastian Bach
*German composer, and devout Lutheran
*wrote complex and beautiful religious works for the organ and choirs.
*-Brandenburg Concerto-
George Fredrick Handel
*German-born composer although he spent much time in England.
*-Water Music-
*-Messiah- :combines instruments and voices. today its standard at Christmas and Easter programs.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
*6 yr old prodigy
* over next 3 decadces his operas, symphonies, and religious works. Helped define the new style of composition
*died in poverty at 35.
Daniel Defoe
*-Robinson Crusoe- :sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island.
Samuel Richardson
*-Pamela- :used a series of letters to tell a story about a servant girl.
Francis Bacon
*involved w/ the scientific method
*emphasized observation and reasoning.
*wanted science to make the life of people better by leading to practical technologies.
Rene Descartes
*-Discourse on Method-
*emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding
*"I think, therefore I am"
Sir Isaac Newton
*apple fall from a tree??
*named force of Gravity.
*using math, showed that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun.
*-Mathematical Principles on Natural Philosophy-
*all motion in the universe can be measured and described mathematically.
Robert Boyle
*distinguished individual elements and chemical compounds.
*explained the effect of temperature and pressure on gases.
*work opened the way to modern chemical analysis of the composition of matter.
Andreas Vesalius
*-On the Structure of the Human Body-
*1st accurate and detailed study of the human anatomy.
Ambroise Paré
*developed a new and more effective ointment for preventing infection.
*developed a technique for closing wounds with stitches.
Galileo Galilei
*assembled an astronomical telescope.
*observed the 4 moons of Jupiter, seeing that they moved around the planet exactly the way copernicus said that the Earth moved around the sun.
*discoveries caused an uproar and was tried before the Inquisition, + w/drew statement in order not to die.
Greek astronomer who's theories were accepted by European scholars until the mid 1500s. Matched the teachings of the church.
*earth is the center of the universe.
Nicolaus Copernicus
*On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
*heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe
* earth just one of the planets revolving around the sun.
Tycho Brahe
*provided evidence that supported Copernicus' theory.
*set up an astronomical observatory and observed the sky accumulate data about the movements of the heavenly bodies every night for 8 years.
Johannes Kepler
*German astronomer +mathemetician
*Brahe's assistant
*calculated the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun .
* planets move in an ELLIPSE: oval-shaped orbit the planets move in.

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