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Art History-SAD


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Define a "narrative" work of art
one that "tells a story"
Define an "abstract" work of art
has only a stylized or symbolic reference to objects in nature - more about information than a realistic depiction
Identify the following for the work of art, Venus of Willendorf: Medium, Culture/ Style, Bracket Dates
Limestone, Paleolithic, 30,000 - 9,000 BC
Name 4 Key concepts of the Paleolithic Culture.
1. People were hunter-gatherers 2. Base concern: fertility 3. Images & objects linked to rituals 4. Images both stylized & naturalistic
What are the bracket dates for Paleolithic Art?
30,000 - 9,000 BC
Define: post and lintel
As in Stonehenge, large stone posts (monoliths), capped by stone "beams" used to span an opening (lintel)
Identify the following for the work of art, Bisons: Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates
Cave painting Paleolithic 30,000 - 9,000 BC
What are the primary concerns in the Paleolithic Culture?
fertility, food, survival
What are the bracket dates for Neolithic Art?
9,000 - 3,200 BC
What are the art periods for Prehistoric Art?
Paleolithic: Old Stone Age c40,000-8,000BC & Neololithic: New Stone Age, 8,000-2,300BC
Who is Sir Arthur Evans?
Archeologist - Inspired by Heinrich Schliemann who discovered the Minoan Culture c. 1900.
What are the bracket dates for Minoan Art?
3000 - 1400 BC
Define: Megalith
A large, rough-hewn stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric structures.
Rhyton in the shape of a bull's head, Knossos. C. 1500-1450 BC , Crete
Identify the following work of art: Bull-Leaping Fresco (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Fresco, Minoan, 3000 - 1400 BC (stylized Minoan figures, highly animated)
Name 4 Key Concepts of the Neolithic Culture.
1. New values linked to new life-style (new interest in afterlife & concerns beyone simple survival) 2. No longer hunter-gatherers (fixed communities, agriculture & animal husbandry) 3. Emphasis on cycles of life & cycles of seasons 4. Art - More images of humans, more abstract than paleolithic art
Identify the following for the work of art, Stonehenge, England: Culture/ Style, Bracket Dates
Neolithic 9,000 - 3,200 BC
Is Venus of Willendorf a naturalistic or stylized work of art? What does she represent?
Stylized Represents an exagerrated womanly figure symbolizing fertility.
Identify the following for the work of art, Human Skull: Medium, Culture/ Style, Bracket Dates
Human skull & plaster Neolithic 9,000 - 3,200 BC
What are the bracket dates for Mycenaean Art?
1500 - 1200 BC
Post and Lintel
Two or more vertical elements are used to support a bridging horizontal one.
Laying of flat stones without mortar forming a wall
The Simplest Type of megalithic tomb
A big Stone or Rock supporting a huge table-like stone form
Single vertical magalithic (big rock)
A circular pattern
straight rows
A circle of stones or post, often surrounded by a ditch with a built up embankment
Mortise and tendon joints
a conical projection from one piece fitting into a hole in the next
Characteristic of Ancient Egyptian Art
First sign of writing appears, Art is centered around the tombs , religion, Nile River and the two kingdoms: Old Kingdom & New Kingdom
Often Lamassus , guardian protectors of palaces and thrones, bearded head of a man, , lion/bull body, wings, had five legs.
Standard form of Egyptian tombs
Third Dynasty development of mastaba that were quite large and resembled those of royal palace.
Made of different animals
Characteristic of New Kingdom
Painted w/ mineral based paint; more stylized, coloration, same profile
Size associated with importance in ancient art
Hieratic Scale
No not conform to natural appearances
Imagines dedicated to the Gods
Votice Figures
Upright Slab
compound of buildings where the ruler governed and resided
Palace complex
Fortressed or walled city
notches on the top of walls and towers
Identify the following work of art: The Lion Gate (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Architecture, Mycenaean, 1500 - 1200 BC (heraldic animal figures, relieving triangle, post and lintel)
A plant that inspired architectural ornamentation, used in Corintinian
The citadel used in ancient Greek
An ornament used at the corner or peak of a roof
An oval arena for an athletic event
a symbol represented without images of human figures
relieving arch
an arch built with a heavy wall just above a post and lintel structure (such as a gate or window) to help support the wall above
Atmospheric Prospective
Variations in color and clarity caused by distance.
The symbol ic object or objects that identify a particle deity, saint of personification in art.
the top of a column
Italian word designating the contrast of dark and light in a painting
Identify the following work of art: Palace at Knossos (Location, Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Greek Island of Crete, Architecture, Minoan, 3000 - 1400 BC (sophisticated w/ running water and sewer systems, structure added on to over period of yrs, stylized bull horns on bldg)
What are the Key Concepts of Minoan Culture?
1. Urbanized, maritime culture, located on many islands 2. Peaceful, traders & merchants 3. Palace may be source for myth of Minotaur 4. Defeated by warrior culture frm Greek mainland
What are the Key Concepts for the Mycenaean Culture?
1. On Greek mainland 2. Militaristic 3. Built massive defensive structures
Who is Heinrich Schliemann?
Archeologist who discovered Troy and Mycenaean Culture based on information in Homer's Iliad in the Late 19th Century.
Define composite view
when a figure is represented in both profile and frontally for another part of the body. More about information than accurate representation.
What are the Key Concepts of Egyptian Art?
1. Emphasis on powerful individuals & afterlife 2. principle medium = stone 3. object convey strength, power, permanence 4. Art reflects hierarchical society 5. formal, unchanging, follow strict canon for human form 6. Composite view of figure
Name all three of The Great Pyramids
Khufu (the oldest & largest), Khafre (with Great Sphinx), Menkaure
What are the Key Concepts of Egyptian Culture?
1. Hierarchical society 2. Pharaoh 3. Obsessed with the afterlife (necropolis, mumification, Ka)
Identify the following work of art: The Great Pyramids of Giza (Location, Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Gizeh, Egypt, Architecture, Old Kingdom Egypt, 2550 - 2140 BC (Burialgrounds inside, structures showed strength, power, permanence)
Identify the following work of art: Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel (Location, Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Egypt, Architecture, New Kingdom Egypt, 1550 - 710 BC (Ramses shown in same position as seen for thous. of yrs., links him to previous great pharaohs, promotes sense of power)
Identify the following work of art: Palette of King Narmer (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Relief sculpture (with registers), Predynastic Egypt, 3500 - 2920 BC (complex narrative, composite view from canon, depicts unification of upper & lower Egypt, functional object for putting on eye make-up)
What are the bracket dates for Predynastic Egypt?
3500 - 2920 BC
What are the bracket dates for Old Kingdom Egypt?
2550 - 2140 BC
What are the bracket dates for New Kingdom Egypt?
1550 - 710 BC
Identify the following work of art: Khafre (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Sculpture (closed-style), Old Kingdom Egypt, 2550 - 2140 BC (Idealized, canon for 3-D Pharaoh, Hawk symbolizes power)
Identify the following work of art: Fowling Scene (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Fresco, New Kingdom Egypt, 1550 - 710 BC (fresco secco - dry fresco, animals naturalistic, figures sized according to rank)
Identify the following work of art: Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer (Medium, Culture/Style, Bracket Dates)
Papyrus scroll, New Kingdom Egypt, 1550 - 710 BC (continuous narrative, formal, Hu-Nefer's heart judged, ultimately awarded eternal life)
Define "relieving triangle"
In a corbeled arch, the opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself
Define "chimera / fantastic animals"
animals depicted as behaving like humans
Define "beehive dome with corbeled vault"
pointed dome created by stacking stone blocks in horizontal courses, each sticking out slightly further than the one below
Define "lapis lazuli"
semi-precious, azure-blue stone imported from Afghanistan... used by and for people of wealth and importance
Define "labryinth"
English word that derives from the intricate plan & scores of rooms of the Knossos palace. Labrys means "double ax" in Greek, which was a symbol seen throughout the palace
Define "hierarchical society"
A society in which there is separation into groups of people based on rank or class allowing priviledges to those in a "higher" class
Define "pharaohs"
ancient Egyptian kings, considered living gods
Define "Mesopotamia"
Area between the rivers, Tigris and Euphrates
Define "hierarchical space"
A building which has limited access to people based on their importance or rank in society
Define "mumification"
technique for embalming in order to preserve the body
Define "registers"
bands in a pictoral narrative
Define "necropolis"
Greek for "city of the dead"
Define "hypostyle hall"
huge room with a roof supported by many columns
Define "fresco"
Painting on lime plasters either dry or wet
Define "clerestory"
raised central section in a hypostyle hall that allowed light to filter into the interior
Define "ka"
life force that the Egyptians believed was with a person from birth and could inhabit the corspe upon death and live on
Define "papyrus"
material used by the Eyptians for writing on... as in papyrus scrolls
Define "palette"
a stone slab with a circular depression
Define "heraldic composition"
a central figure with an animal on each side
Define "capital"
the uppermost part of a column
Define "closed style"
In sculpture, no open spaces, solid & attached... gives a sense of strength and power
Define "continuous narrative"
In a painting or sculpture, when a figure appears more than once in the same space at different stages in a story
Define "canon"
rules of proportion, strictly adhered to in Egyptian art
Define "longitudinal plan with central axis"
The horizontal, symmetrical arrangement of a building from a central point running the length of the building
Define "relief sculpture"
A sculpture in which the figures are projecting from the the surface of which they are a part
Define "stele"
A carved, stone slab erected to commemerate an event
Define "votive offering"
gift of gratitude offered to a god or goddess
Define "cuneiform"
wedge-shaped, pictograph signs used by the Sumerians for writing
Define "sunken relief"
deep outlines chiseled below the stone's surface (as in sunken relief columns)

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