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Art History Semester One


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Why did the Florentine Renaissance take place in Florence?
-Florence is the central trade and travel city which promotes an exchange of ideas
Pre- Florentine Renaissance Brought influences of Byzantine and Medieval Art
o Came after black death, considered proto renaissance o Considered “father of the renaissance” o Differences from Duccio: more dimension, less rigid alignment o Used lines to draw the eye to a certain place o Thumbprints: blue backgrounds, heavy bodies o People with their backs to us makes us feel like we are intruding • Represents the viewer, and brings us into the scene
Renaissance artist Influenced by Rome Expulsion from Paradise, The Trinity, Tribute Money Used Chiaroscuro
Italian term for light and darkness
Expulsion from Paradise
⬢ -Massaccio First convincing use of light and shadow of the renaissance ⬢ Shows different shades of light on the human form, but also shows a natural cast shadow
The Trinity
-Masaccio ⬢ More intellectual ⬢ Figures are placed in a triangle ⬢ First time seeing individual people as subjects of a painting and not just Jesus or a saint
The Tribute Money
-Masaccio ⬢ His masterpiece ⬢ Figure with back to us gives viewer a place in the scene ⬢ Naturalistic
What was the Impact of the Ottomans taking control of Constantinople in 1453 on Renaissance Artists
⬢ Philosophers fled to Italy, so philosophy was a renewed interest in the region ⬢ Neoplatonism: infused an interest in Plato into the renaissance world ⬢ No one in Italy really knew Plato until it suddenly came to them ⬢ 2nd half of 15th century and part of 16th century
Deeply affected by Plato Birth of Venus, Adoration of Christ Child, Primavera Hair is always incredible in his works
A painting that tells a story
Birth of Venus
-Botticelli ⬢ First nude in about a thousand years ⬢ Detailed reflected light on body, but chose not to do cast shadows ⬢ The background was unrealistic, but on purpose ⬢ Allegory, telling a story
Adoration of Christ Child
-Botticelli • Portrait of the Medici family • Had great linear and depth perspective • Different style than “Birth of Venus” • Combines intellectual and emotional
-Botticelli ⬢ Symbolic of the awakening of Florence during the renaissance ⬢ Influenced by pagan mythology ⬢ Colors blue and red indicated wealth because the paints were very expensive ⬢ Depicted the women as very slender ⬢ Hair wavy and graceful
-Early to mid 15th century influenced by classism of Rome Always chose mediums deliberately David, Zuccone, Mary Magdalene
Gates of Paradise, Bell Tower of the Cathedral of Florence
Gates of Paradise
-Ghiberti • Doors of baptistry in Florence • Contest between Brunelleschi and Ghiberti, Ghiberti wins • Each panel has extreme detail • Shows Ghiberti’s skill • Also, each panel had realistic perspective • High relief: some parts came out so much that they were almost detached from surface
High Relief
some parts came out so much that they were almost detached from surface Ghiberti was a master at this
Cathedral of Florence
Bell tower was designed by Giotto Dome was by Brunelleschi
-The pazzi chapel -Dome of the cathedral of florence
High Renaissance
Masters: Da Vinci (scientist), Michelangelo (sculptor), Raphael (youngest)
Da Vinci
-Last Supper, Virgin of the Rocks, Mona Lisa, Vrigin and Anne with Jesus, Da Vinci\'s Notebooks
The Last Supper
-Da Vinci • Judas is drawing back, darkened • Figures arranged in triangles • Also emotional- apostles in disarray after Jesus’ announcement
Virgin of the Rocks
-Da Vinci -features Sfumato
Mona Lisa
-Da Vinci ⬢ More sfumato and chiaroscuro ⬢ Mona Lisa is the harmony over conflicting forms in background ⬢ One of the first portraits that celebrates inner beauty
hazy background and very soft edges
The Virgin and Anne with Jesus
-Da Vinci ⬢ Anne looks big, Mary sitting on her lap, holding her own baby ⬢ Shows Mary trying to protect her baby
Da Vinci\'s Notebooks
Wrote right to left Features the Cannon of Proportions
Cannon of Proportions
-Da Vinci -Demonstrates Da Vinci\'s deep analytical abilities and scientific capabilities
-aka \"The Prince of Grace\" -Alba Madonna, School of Athens, The Transfiguration
Alba Madonna
-Raphael • Not a lot of sfumato or chiaroscuro • Uses clear lines so you know where the form ends • Shape of surface is a circle, called “tondo” • Wants to be clear and precise • Characteristic of classical art
The School of Athens
-Raphael • Unity of emotion and intellect • Used Da Vinci’s model for Plato • Put many Greek thinkers in the painting • Aristotle and Plato in the center
The Transfiguration
-Raphael ⬢ Died while painting it ⬢ Top half is more intellectual, bottom is more emotional ⬢ Raphael only actually painted the top ⬢ You can tell because the bottom has tons of chiaroscuro
Wrote about The Great Masters
Influenced by Neoplatism Master Colorist -Battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs -Pieta -David -Moses -Doni Tondo -Sistine Chapel
Battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs
-Michelangelo • Shows Michelangelo’s exploration with the male form
⬢ Mary cradling her son as he dies ⬢ Elements of High renaissance: triangle structure ⬢ Emotion is in the drapery, intellect is in the face
David -1505 • Looks more manly than Donatello’s • Depicts David before battle, not after • Strongly resembles a Greek god
Moses -Michelangelo ⬢ Looks like Zeus ⬢ Powerful figure
Doni Tondo
-Michelangelo ⬢ Jesus and family in the middle ⬢ Nudes in the background are in state of unawareness ⬢ St. John is aware of the coming
Sistine Chapel
-Michelangelo -Centered on the \"Creation of Adam\" which shows the tension by the fingers almost touching -Prophets and the Cybils: shows his use of colors -The Last Judgment: Painted 25 years later (after the reformation), shows that michelangelo was deeply disturbed: emotions like cowering, anxiety, damnation, angst- Christ is no longer forgiving
Sofonisba Auguissola
o First successful female painter of the high renaissance • Women were not encouraged to paint because they weren’t supposed to study nudes o Became so popular that she was hired as royal portrait artist of Spain o Made a self portrait of herself in old age • Self confident
Northern Renaissance
-Netherlands, Denmark, Holland -More interest in domestic life, displays of wealth and very interested in the phenomenon of light, less so in the human form like the Italians -Used Oil Paints -Includes: Jan Van Eyck, Bosch, Durer, Bruegel
Jan Van Eyck
-Father of oil painting -Wedding Portrait
Wedding Portrait (1434)
-Jan Van Eyck -⬢ Interested in science and optics, not in Greek and Roman figures ⬢ Room filled with symbolic objects ⬢ Dog = fidelity ⬢ Oranges = wealth ⬢ Mirror had intense detail in reflection ⬢ Another thumbprint of northern renaissance is tilted floors
-Garden of Earthly Delights ⬢ Middle panel = material world, left = heaven, right = hell ⬢ Unrealistic ⬢ In the north, representing the human form was not as important ⬢ Use of symbolism was religious
Self portraits, Behold the Man
Durer\'s Self Portraits
⬢ Showed mastery of anatomy during his time in Italy ⬢ Combined elements of North and of Italy ⬢ Had great drawing skills
Wedding Banquet, Peasant\'s Dance
Wedding Banquet
Bruegel ⬢ Flemish artist, wanted to paint everyday working class people ⬢ Hefty figures, similar to Masaccio or Giotto
Peasant\'s Dance
Bruegel ⬢ Another depiction of everyday life ⬢ His children were very unrealistic
Italian Renaissance
-Took place in Venice -Very interested in light but they focused on creating a \"glow\" rather than a blast of light -Features: Georgelioni, Titian, Tintoretto
-The Tempest, Concert Champetre
The Tempest
-Georgelioni -⬢ Very early landscape, has a feeling of atmosphere
Concert Champetre
⬢ Women nude, men clothed ⬢ Women were actually muses ⬢ Picnic scene
-16th Century -Venus of Urbino, Crowning of Thor
Venus of Urbino
⬢ Titian was credited with taking oil painting to a whole new level ⬢ Colors and light ⬢ Sends a seductive message
Crowning of Thor
-Titian ⬢ As he got older, Titian became more emotional and religious ⬢ Less clarity, more chiaroscuro
Student of Titian -Christ before Pilot, The Last Supper
Christ before Pilot
⬢ Combines intellect and emotion ⬢ Jesus is the order over chaos
The Last Supper of the Venetian Renaissance
-Tintoretto ⬢ Many other people included besides Jesus and disciples ⬢ The whole painting is bathed in the same glowy light ⬢ Chiaroscuro ⬢ Uses light to symbolize enlightenment
Roman Baroque
-Characteristics: No hard edges or corners, fluidity -Lots of Ovals -Features: Borromini and Bernini
What do ovals represent? In which art unit were they used?
Roman Baroque; they represent motion as they are more dynamic then circles
o Built the San Carlo Church o Fluid shapes, not rigid
THE ROMAN BAROQUE -Built the \"Balducchino\", David, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Rape of Persephone, Apollo and Daphne, Tritan, The Trevi Fountain THE ARISTOCRATIC BAROQUE o No longer transitioning o Commissioned by Louis XIII  Decline of Italy, rise of France o Louis wanted to be remembered as strong and authoritative  Didn’t want his art to be emotional
David of the Roman Baroque
-Bernini  Early 17th century  Spiraling movement  Had to look all the way around it  Face has look of determination
The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
-Bernini  Drapery was very detailed  Strong diagonal
Rape of Persephone
-Bernini  Sculpture in motion  Intense skill is shown by the impression of the man’s hand on the woman’s thigh
Apollo and Daphne
-Bernini -Captures the moment she starts turning into a tree
-Bernini -More torque and spiral in the figure
The Trevi Fountain
-Bernini -All the sculptures were complimented by the fluidity and the movement of the water
Aristocraic Baroque
-Peter Paul Rubens, Bernini, Poussin,Lorrain, Versailles
Peter Paul Rubens
Part of the transition from Roman to Aristocratic Baroque Studied in Rome Raising of the Cross, Descent from the Cross, The Ressurrection, Rape of the Daughters of Lucipus, Wedding Portrait, The Engagement
The Raising of the Cross
-Rubens  He was the master of using the composition to tell the story
The Descent from the Cross
-Rubens  Directs the eye with white cloth • Makes it very real that the figure is coming down
-The Resurrection
-Rubens  Bursting from the center out • Centrifugal
-Rape of the Daughters of Lucipus
-Rubens  Romantic but violent at the same time  Put his own perspective spin on it
Wedding Portrait
-Rubens  Paints his future wife with her whole family to make her feel comfortable • Made it as a gift to his wife
The engagement
-Rubens  Cupid brings portrait of Marie de Medici to Henry  Marie commissioned it to show her love for Henry, made after he was assassinated
-Louis XIII\'s favorite artist -Self Portrait, Sheperds of Arcadia, Rape of the Sabine Women
Poussin\'s Self Portrait
o Self portrait  Geometric  Vertical and horizontal, not diagonal like Roman Baroque • This made him one of Louis XIII’s favorite artists
Shepers of Arcadia
 Became almost formulaic as to what a painting “needed” to have
Rape of the Sabine Women
 Had geometric elements like buildings and the government figures  The people in the center were more emotional  Poussin didn’t like movement • His people in paintings looked exactly like statues
o One of the first great landscape painters o Before him, landscapes weren’t considered sellable  Usually had his assistants add in some figures for sellability
-Louis XIII\'s palace -Elegant, Permanent and Strong -Architects: Mansart and LeVau Gardens: Le Notre Interior: Le Brun -All parts had signs that symbolized the power of Louis XIII -Played with light -Hall of Mirrors -Very grand, expensive and high maintenance
Who were the architects of Versailles
Mansart and LeVau
Who did the gardens of Versailles
Le Notre
Who did the Interior of Versailles
Le Brun
Spanish Baroque
-Under Velazquez
-lead the Spanish Baroque -Las Meninas, Portrait of Phillip IV, Queen Marriana and Prince Balthazar
Las Meninas
-Velazquez  Theatrical, setting was like a stage  The mirror shows a reflection of the king and queen • Very advanced  Velazquez is also in the painting • The artist behind the large canvas is him • Wearing nobleman’s clothes  On the walls are Rubens paintings in the dark, showing that Rubens is the past and Velazquez is the future  From a distance the princess looks detailed but up close she wasn’t • The artist knew how to play with our eyes
Queen Marriana
-Velazquez  Curtain adds emotion, because she doesn’t show much
Prince Balthazar
 Little boy on a rearing horse
Chinese Art in the 15th Century
 Landscape was the star of the painting, not the people  Aerial views were popular  Important to see the whole of nature • Goal of art was to be an observer and learn the human’s role in nature  Values: to learn from nature, to get in touch with nature, meditation
Chinese Art in the 16th Century
 More landscapes • Portrayed nature as powerful • Ideal home was one in the middle in nature  Sumi brush • Line and contour were very appreciated • Lines were important because they created movement and patterns
Japanese Art in the 14th Century
o More focus on figures than in China o Less realism, more idealism o Values: importance of mediation o Art had only one view, not multiple  Focused on one figure  Appreciation of nature in smaller scenes o Masks  Not idealized  Used for theatre, expression o Sculpture  “Warrior” • Strong, ferocious, intense
Indian Art in the Middle Ages
o Middle Ages  Embraced sensuality of human body • (Won’t find this anywhere else)  Sculpture, usually of goddesses • Hands were graceful and gesturing • Drew attention to curves of her hips o Ideal fertile woman
Indian Art in the 16th Century
 Paintings had no realistic perspective • No negative space, either • More symbolism than realism
The Taj Mahal
 17th century  In memory of King’s dead wife • Masoleum  Influenced by Islam
Islamic Art
o Blue Mosque  Influenced by Hagia Sofia  Outside is plain, but inside is all blue
African Art
o Abstract but geometric o Bronze doors- pattern and repetition o Masks  The more spiritual, the more abstract the mask  Used for religious rituals • Different masks for different rituals  Carved an entire mask out of one piece of wood  Head pieces also showed focus on curves and angles
Pre-Columbian Americans: Olmec
 Sculptures were geometric  Had some elements of Asia, without any contact
Pre-Columbian Americans: Moche
 Ritual runner- vase with images on it
Pre-Columbian Americans: Aztec
 Had lots of color  Violent  Geometric
Pre-Columbian Americans: Peru
 Death mask • Gold • Geometric
Mexican Art
o Corbelled arch= first arch o Apartment buildings
Art in Ohio
o The mound builders
Art in Canada
o Totem style paintings on the house
Dutch Baroque
-Rembrandt, Hals, Judith Leister, Vanitas Paintings, Oesteryck, Roych, De Heem, Van Huisom, Riesdale, Food, Avercamp, Vermeer
o Depicted working class o Brings us into the painting o Source of light was usually somewhere outside painting o Light symbolized enlightenment and values -Anatomy Lesson -Portrait of Old Woman -The Oriental -The Night Watch -The Jewish Bride -Tonees (series of self portraits)
Anatomy Lesson
-Rembrandt  Light is on body  Enlightenment= learning
Portrait of the Old Woman
Rembrandt  His portraits were very real • Not posed • Captured moments the way they actually happened  Light falls on book  Enlightenment= knowledge
The Oriental
-Rembrandt  Practice paintings were called tronees
The Night Watch
-Rembrandt  His masterpiece  Main figure is a little off center, make it seem like he’s moving  Dynamic group picture
The Jewish Bride
-Rembrandt  Example of the Rembrandt technique • Layering colors and creating texture • Thick mounds of paint catch the light
o His figures were full of movement and action o Strong brushstrokes o Very emotional, celebrating life o Shows the immediacy of feeling o Still had baroque elements  Diagonal  Light
Judith Leister
o Pupil of Hals o Painted her son and daughter  Happy  Portrayed their different personalities  Hinted at a whole event about to unfold
-Dutch Baroque -o Vanity= superficiality, emptiness o Themes of a vanitaus  Everything material has no value, because material things don’t last forever  Encouraged people to put value in religion and spirituality, not superficial things
Oesteryck, Roych, De Heem
o A lot of women did vanitaus paintings because they were considered acceptable o Did several of them  Dark background  Showed the gifts of the material world  Symbols showed that material goods die
Van Huisom
o Reflected light in the water droplet
o Unlike other artists, he was very emotional o “Jewish Cemetery”  Directs the eye with lighting and contrast  Landscape, but message was vanitaus • Things die and grow in the material world
o Winter scene  Showed people on the ice  Unique
-The Little Street, Kitched maid, girl asleep, girl with the pearl earring, the letter, the allegory of painting -master of showing light on a form -did a lot to texture but he was very subtle about it- Master at it
The Little Street
 Intellectual, structured  Very detailed Vermeer
The Kitchen Maid
 He often chose simple scenes, and portrayed them with all their detail  Quiet but contemplative Vermeer
Girl Asleep
Vermeer  Foreground very sharp, background out of focus
Girl with the Pearl Earring
Vermeer  No hard edges  Totally soft  Left a lot to the imagination
The Letter
Vermeer  Woman reading a letter…
The Allegory of Painting
 Vermeer’s masterpiece  Shows an artist making a portrait  Tried to simplify things so the viewer would focus on the meaning
French Painting During the Dutch Baroque
⬢ Very dark ⬢ Themes o Biblical, repentance ⬢ Geometric and still
Rococo Architecture (18th Century)
⬢ Palace in Germany o Similar to Versailles, though built 100 years after ⬢ Extravagance- white and gold, intricate shapes and decorations ⬢ Schpiegelzhal o Homage to hall of mirrors o Very fancy (GOLD) ⬢ Kaiserzhal o Combined painting and architecture on the ceiling
-Watteau, Bouscher, Fragonard, Le brun, Chardin
o Captured wistful nature of the movement o Background doesn’t look real  Looks more like a stage and a backdrop o Depicted scenes of everyday life of the nobility o Departure from the baroque  Wistful, people enjoying themselves  Sent message that the current era was a fading way of life  Used softer pastel colors o Sent strong message that old era of France was fleeting, and a new era was arriving
o Young nudes, pastel colors o Elements of the baroque: lighting, curtain in background  Stagelike
-The Swing
The Swing
-Fragonard  Young noble girl swinging, servant pulling her  Her lover is watching from the bushes, she flings her shoe off at him  Statue says shh! Don’t tell her that the guy is in the bushes…
Le Brun
o Painted portraits because it wasn’t acceptable for women to study nudes o Marie Antoinette’s court painter o Self portrait  Wearing fancy clothes, sends message that she’s accomplished
o Still life artist  Basically geometric shapes  No people, no high class scenes  His patrons were the bourgeoisie- not the nobility o Simple, attention to reflection o Focused on domestic life o Used monochromatic backgrounds o Everything in his paintings could be reduced to a geometric shape
Romanticism ⬢ 2 types: neoclassicism and neobaroque ⬢ Focus was on the hero ⬢ Movement, drama, emotion, heroism, and bright colors
-Sect of Romanticism -Combined elements of romanticism with classicism -focused on structure, power and stability
o She was one of the founders of British Royal Academy of Art
-Oath of the Horatii -Death of Socrates -Death of Marat -Portrait of Napoleon (young aged) -Napolean Rearing a Horse -Napoleon as emperor -Napoleon\'s coronation -Madame Recamier -Huge Nap. Supporter
Oath of Horatti
 Glorified ancient Rome  Dominant colors: red, blue, and yellow  Neoclassicism didn’t generally have fully saturated colors • More subdued  Subject matter: sacrificing for the homeland • Subject matter was often significant in romanticism
Death of Socrates
-Key Neoclassicism Example -David  Looks frozen, not much movement  Had emotion, but the figures are stable  Socrates being depicted as heroic
Death of Marat
 Glorified Marat, made him look like a hero  He is surrounded by darkness • Makes his body look heavy, darkness pushes down on him  Marat is the solitary figure • No people standing around him or reacting
Portrait of Napoleon (young)
 David was able to transfer from French revolution to Napoleonic era  Napoleon was the hero of France
Napoleon Rearing a Horse
 Much more movement, more romantic  Wind added drama  Saturated colors  Napoleon looks determined and powerful
Napoleon as emperor
 Had short haircut resembling Roman emperors  His stance is stable and powerful  No movement
Napoleon\'s Coronation
 He had David make it into a neoclassical scene  Political propoganda
Madame Recamier
 Was one of the leading ladies of Paris  Very neoclassical • Horizontals and verticals • Clothing and hairstyle was Roman • Simple environment
Odalisque, Turkish Bath, Portrait of an Aristocrat
 Exotic woman from Ottoman harem • Everything from the middle east was considered exotic  She was a sex slave, but the portrait romanticized it • Depicted her life as relaxed, luxurious • But she was a slave, had to obey her master  Elongated her back in order to make a sweeping curve  Neoclassical elements: very soft and smooth • Can’t see any brushstrokes
Turkish Bath
-Ingres - Favorite shape was the circle  Neoclassical elements: clarity, smoothness, neutral colors, geometric shapes  Romantic element: fantasizes nudes
Portrait of an Aristocrat
-Ingres - Showed Ingres’ skill • He was the master of using line

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