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Child Psych Test 2


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piaget's definition of intelligence
a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment
piaget's view of the goal of intellectual activity
all intellectual activity is undertaken with one goal in mind: to produce a balanced, or harmonious, relationship between one's thought processes and the environment... this is called cognitive equilibrium and the process of achieving it is called equilibration
three types of schemes identified by Piaget
1) behavioral (or sensorimotor) schemes
2) symbolic schemes
3) operational schemes/cognitive operation
behavioral (or sensorimotor) schemes
first 2 years; an organized pattern of behavior that the child uses to respresent and respond to an object or experience
IE: a 9-month-old sees a ball as an object that she can bounce and roll instead of a round toy with a formal name
symbolic schemes
ages 2-6; internal mental symbols (such as images or verbal codes) that one uses to respresent aspects of experience
IE: when a girl imitates something she has never seen before,she has formed a mental representation or image of the boy's tantrum that preserved this scene and guided her later imitation
operational schemes/cognitive operation
ages 7 and up; an internal mental activity that a person performs to reach a logical conclusion
IE: a child that flattens a ball of playdough recognizes that it is the same amount of playdough still
an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge
an inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment
2 processes involved in adaptation
1) assimilation
2) accommodation
piaget's term for the process by which children interpret new experiences by incorporating them into their existing schemes
IE: a child who sees a horse for the first time may try to assimilate it into one of her existing schemes for fourlegged animales and thus may think of this creature as a dog
the child who recognizes that a horse is not a dog may invent a name for this new creature or perhaps say "what dat?" and adapt the label that her companions use
two substages of the preoperational period and the approx ages for each
1) preconceptual period; age 2-4
2) intuitive period; age 4-7
4 deficits that are evident in preconceptual reasoning
2)lack of dual encoding
the recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way
illustration of centration using conservation problem
example of liquid in tall skinny beaker vs a short broad one has more after seeing them both in tall skinny beakers. Children younger than 6/7 will say the tall beaker has more...uncapable of conservation
new evidence on egocentrism
children seem to appear less egocentric when provided iwth less complicated visual displays (the three mountain thing seems complicated)
new evidence on causal reasoning
3 year olds do not routinely attribute life or lifelike quialities to inanimate objects. most 4-year olds recognize taht plants and animals grow and will heal after an injury, whereas inanimate objects will not.
new evidence on conservation
nonconservers as young as 4 and even mentally retarded children can be trained to conserve by a veritey of techniques.
IE identity training--teaching children to recognize that the object or substance transofrmed in a conservation task is still the same object regardless of its new appearance
cognitive operations that aid in solving conservation problems
1) decenter
2) reversibility
example of decentering
focusing simultaneously on both the height and width of the two containers of water
example of reversibility
the ability to mentally undo the pouring process and imagine the liquid in its original container
two mental operations necessary to successfully answer problems involving relational logic
1) mental seriation
2) transitivity
mental seriation
a cognitive operation that allows one to mentally order a set of stimuli along a quantifiable dimension such as height or weight
the ability to recognize relations among elements in a serial order
IE: A is more than B, B is more than C, thus A is more than C
horizontal decalage
piaget's term for a child's uneven cognitive performance; an inability to solve certain problems even though one can solve similar problems requiring the same mental operations. occurs because problems that appear quite similar may actually differ in complexity
three key aspects that would be found in a piagetian-based curriculum
1) tailor education to children's readiness to learn
2) be sensitive to individual differences
3) promote discovery-based education
two types of logical reasoning that emerge during formal operational that distinguish it from concrete operational
1) ideas
2) propositions
six major contributions that piaget made in the field of human development
1)founded the discipline of cognitive development
2)convinced us that children are curious, active explorers who play an important role in their own development; children actively construct their own knowledge
3)one of the first theories to try to explain and not just describe the process of devleopment
4)his description of broad sequences of intellectual development provides a reasonably accurate overview of how children of different ages think
5) piaget's ideas have had a major influence on thinking about social and emotional development, as well as many practical implications for educators
6)piaget asked important questions and drew literally thougsands of researchers ot the study of cognitive development
four criticisms that have been raised concerning piaget's theory of cognitive development
1)distinction between competence and performance
2) changes during certain stages of life
3)adaptation too vague
4)too little attention to social and cultural development
vygotsky's "zone of proximal development" and example
the difference between what a learner can accomplish independently and what he or she can accomplish with the guidance and encouragement of a more skilled partner
IE: a girl's father helps her to solve puzzles and she will internalize the problem solving techniques
three reasons why cooperative learning may be an effective classroom technique
1)children are often more motivated when working problems together
2)cooperative learning requires children to explain their ideas to one another and to resolve conflicts
3)children are more likely to use high quility cognitive strategies while working together---strategies that often lead to ideas and solutions that no one in the group would likely have generated alone
cooperative learning
exercises in which students are encouraged to assist each other; the less competent members of the team are likely to benefit from the instruction they recieve from their more skillful peers, who also benefit by playing the role of teacher
what do information-processing theorists mean when they refer to the mind's hardware adn software?
hardware=the nervous system including the brain, sensory receptors, and their neural connections
software=rules, strategies, and other "mental programs" that specify how information is registered, interpreted, stored, retrieved, and analyzed
three memory stores in atkinson and shiffrin's model of the human information-processing system
1)sensory store/sensory register
2)short-term store
3)long-term store
sensory store/sensory register
first information processing store, in which stimuli are noticed and are briefly available for further processing; large quantaties of info for very short periods of time
short-term store
second information processing store, in which stimuli are retained for several seconds and operated on; five to nine pieces of info for several seconds
long-term store
third inforatmion processing store, in which information that has been examined and interpreted is permanently stored for future use; vast, relatively permament
one's knowledge about cognition and about the regulation of cognitive activities
two ways in which information-processing theories of cognitive development differs from piaget's theory
1) focus on maturational changes
2) changes in processing speed
three ways in which fuzzy traces differ from verbatim traces
1)fuzzy traces are more easily accessed
2)fuzzy traces generally require less effort to use
3)verbatim traces are more susceptible to interference and forgetting
fuzzy-trace theory
theory proposed by Brainerd and Reyna that postulates that people encode experiences on a contiunuum from literal, verbatim traces to fuzzy,gistlike traces
memory span
typical memory span found in preschool children and grade-school children
a general measure of the amount of information that can be held in the short-term store
two maturational developments that may partially account for age-related increases in speed of processing
1)increased myelination of neurons in the associative areas of the brain
2)the elimination of unnecessary neural synapses that could interfere with efficient information processing
production deficiencies
a failure to spontaneously generate and use known strategies that could improve learning and memory
utilization deficiency
a failure to benefit from effective strategies that one has spontaneously produced; thought to occur in the early phases of strategy acquisition when executing the strategy requires much mental effort
event memory and strategic memory
example of each
event memory: long-term memory for events IE: stored memory of what you ate for breakfast this morning or the look on your mom's face when your brother was born
strategic memory: processes involved as one consciously attempts to retain or retrieve information IE: trying to retain or retrieve a telephone number, route, or memorized text
how does the use of rehearsal change across childhood
rehearsal: a strategy for remembering that involves repeating the items one is trying to retain; at 3/4 years old, children rarely rehearse. 7-10 year olds rehearse more efficiently than younger children do, and the more they rehearse, the more they remember. 5-8 year olds would rehearse one word at a time to remember a list, while 12 year olds would remember the words in clusters
how does metamemory typically change between the ages of 4 and 12?
children come to regard the mind as an active, constructive agent that stores only interpretations rather than copies of reality. knowledge about memory strategies devlops very gradually
four general conclusions about the development of strategic memory that are supported by evidence from a variety of research studies
1)working memory capacity
2)memory strategies
4)knowledge base
developmental trends of working memory capacity
older children have a greater info-processing capacity than younger children do; they process info faster, leaving more of their limited working memory space for storage and other cognitive processes
developmental trends of memory strategies
older children use more effective memeory strategies for encoding, storing, and retrieving info
developmental trends of metamemory
older children know more about memory processes and their greater metamemory allows them to select the most appropriate strategies for the task at hand and to carefully monitor their progress
developmental trends of knowledge base
older children know more in general, and their greater knowldege base improves thier ability to learn and remember
infantile amnesia
a lack of memory for the early years of one's life
two contemporary cognitive explanations for infantile amnesia
1)early memories may be stored in some nonverbal code that we cannot retrieve once we become language users
2)maybe what is lacking in infancy is not cognitive or language ability, but a sense of "self" around which perseonal experiences can be organized (events are not encoded as "things that happened to ME")
a general representation of the typical sequencing of events (IE what occurs and when) in some familiar context
how might scripts interfere with memories of novel events?
young children's organization of events into scripts has its cost because it results in their tending not to remember much in the wya of novel, atypical information; a child describing a camping trip would mention the eating, sleeping, waking up, etc, instead of sleeping in a tent, canooing, etc
research evidence that relates to the suggestibility of child witnesses
children younger than 9 or 10 are far more susceptible to such memory distortions than older children and adults are
five procedures that can help to preserve the accuracy of children's eyewitness testimony
1)asking questions in nonleading ways
2) limiting the number of times children are interviewed
3) cautioning children that it is better to admit to not knowing an answer than it is to guess or to go along with what an interviewer is implying
4)remain friendly and patient rather than stern and adversarial
5)act out with dolls what they have experienced
two differences between East Asian languages and English that may partially explain observed differences in mathematical skills
the basic differences in how the chinese versus the english language represents numbers seem to contribute to some of the early differences in proficiency in math. chinese numbers halp children learn to count sooner than american childern (they use one-one, one-two, etc instead of eleven, twelve)
how is a child's mental age determined using Binet's testing procedure
all questions were age-graded... IE a question that most 6 year olds pass but few 5 year olds was said to show the mental age of 6
two aspects of intellectual performance that were proposed by Spearman
general mental factor; spearman found that a child's scores across a variety of cognitive tests were moderately correlated and thus inferred that there must be a general mental factor that affects one's performance on most cognitive tasks
g= one's ability to understand relations
special abilites; mental abilites that are specific to particular tests
7 primary mental abilites identified by thurstone
spatial ability, perceptual speed (quick processing of visual info), numerical reasoning, verbal menaing (defining words), word fluency (speed at recognizing words), memory, and inductive reasoning (forming a rule that describes a set of observations)
two major dimensions of intellect proposed by Cattell and Horn
1)fluid intelligence
2)crystallized intelligence
fluid intelligence
the ability to perceive relationships and solve relational problems of the type that are not taught and are relatively free of cultural influences
crystallized intelligence
the ability to understand relations or solve problems that depend on knowledge acquired from schooling and other cultural influences
eight second stratum abilities in Carrol's three stratum theory of intelligence; also a third stratum ability that is associated with each of the second stratum abilites
1) fluid intelligence- analogical
2)crystallized intelligence- vocabulary
3)general memory and learning- memory span
4)visual perception- visual discrimination
5)auditory perception- musical discrimination
6)retrieval ability-creativity
7)cognitive speed- rate of test taking
8)processing speed- speed of decision making
three components of intelligent behavior in Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
3)information-processing skills
sternberg: contextual
adapting to situations, slecting compatible environments, shaping environments
sternberg: experience
response to novelty, automatization
sternberg: info-processing
knowledge, strategies, metacognition
nine kinds of intelligence Gardner proposed in his theory of multiple intelligences
vocation for linguistic intelligence
poet, novelist, journalist
vocation for spatial intelligence
engineer, sculptor, cartographer
vocation for logical-mathmatical intelligence
mathematician, scientist
vocation for musical intelligence
musician, composer
vocation for body-kinesthetic intelligence
dancer, athlete
vocation for interpersonal intelligence
therapist, PR specialist, salesperson
vocation for intrapersonal intelligence
contributes to success in almost any walk of life
vocation for naturalist intelligence
biologist, naturalist
vocation for spiritual/existential intelligence
philospher, theologian
savant syndrome and example
mentally retarded ppl with an extraordinary talent; leslie lemke is blind, has cerebral palsy, is mentally retarded, and couldn't talk til he was an adult but he can flawlessy play a song on the piano that he has only heard once
intelligence quotient
IQ = MA/CA x 100
what did wechsler feel was the major problem with the stanford-binet intelligence test?
he thought earlier versions were overloaded with items that required verbal skills---this is discriminatory against children who have certain language handicaps
what is the advantage to having seperate verbal and performance scales in the wechsler intelligenc test?
the performance subscales allow children from all backgrounds to display thier intellectual strengths
scales that comprise the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
1) the motor scale
2) the mental scale
3) the infant behavioural record
bayley scales: motor scale
assesses such motor capabilities as grasping a cube, throwing a ball, or drinking from a cup
bayley scales: mental scale
includes adaptive behaviours such as categorizing objects, searching for a hidden toy, and following directions
bayley scales: infant behavioural record
a rating of the child's behaviour on dimensions such as goal-directedness, fearfulness, and social responsiveness
three measures that can be obtained in the first 4-8 months of infancy and show a moderate correlation with later IQ scores
1)how quickly infants look when presented with a visual target (visual reaction time)
2)the rate at which they habituate to repetitive stimuli
3)the extent to which they prefer novel stimuli to familiar ones (preference for novelty)
research evidence that relates to the "cumulative-deficit" hypothesis
the notion that impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and that these inhibiting effects accumulate over time; meaningful declines in IQ often occur among children who live in poverty, exp when that poverty is prolonged rather than temporary
how well do IQ scores predict scholastic achievement
students with high IQs tend to do better in school and stay there longer
how well do IQ scores predict vocational success
the average IQ for an occupation increases as the prestige of the occupation increases
how well do IQ scores predict health and adjustment
gifted children seemed to have general health that was much better than average, rated by their teachers as more emotionally adjusted and morally mature, gifted children are about twice as likely as nongifted to feel socially isolated and depressed
organic retardation
an IQ lower than 55 which can cause deficits such as Down syndrome, diseases, or injuries
cultural-familial retardation
mildly retarded individuals (IQs 55 to 70) which reflects a combination of low genetic potential and an unstimulating rearing environment
10 environmental factors that place children at risk for displaying low IQ scores
1)child is member of a minority group
2)head of household is unemployed or low-skilled worker
3)mother did not complete high school
4)family has four or more children
5)father is absent from family
6)family experienced many stressful life events
7)parents have rigid child-rearing values
8)mother is highly anxious/distressed
9)mother has poor mental helth/diagnosed disorder
10)mother shows little positive affect toward child
two types of intellectual abilities proposed by Jensen
1) Level I abilities
2) Level II abilities
Level I abilities
Jensen's term for lower-level intellectual abilites (such as attention and short-term memory) that are important for simple association learning
Level II abilities
Jensen's term for higher-level cognitive skills that are involved in abstract reasoning and problem solving
the ability to generate novel ideas or works that are useful and valued by others
divergent thinking
thinking that requires a variety of ideas or solutions to a problem when there is no one correct answer
convergent thinking
thinking that requires one to come up with a single correct answer to a problem; what IQ tests measure
sex key components of creativity
1)Intellectual resources
3)cognitive style
6)supportive environment
five components of language
the sound system of a language and the rules for combining these sounds to produce meaningful units of speech
rules governing the formation of meaningful words from sounds
the expressed meaning of words and sentences
the structure of a language; the rules specifying how words and grammatical markers are to be combined to produce meaningful sentences
principles that underlie the effective and appropriate use of language in social contexts
key criticisms raised with respect to the nativist approach to language development
the fact that human infants can make imporatnt phonemic distinctions in the first days and weeks of life no longer seems to be such compelling support for the existance of a uniquely human LAD--- the young of other species shows similar powers; nativists don't really explain language development by attributing it to a built-in language acquisition device
interactionist perspective of language development
the notion that biological factors and environmental influences interact to determine the course of language devleopment
three characteristics that are typical in child-directed speech
1)spoken slowly in high-pitched voice
2)often repeated
3)emphasize key words
two types of response that might be made to a child's ungrammatical speech
responding to a chil's ungrammatical utterance with a grammatically improved form of that statement
responding to a child's ungrammatical utterance with a nonrepetitive statement that is grammatically correct
different responses paretns can elicit from preverbal infants by using rising or falling intonations
Rising intonations are used to recapture the attention of a baby who looks away whereas falling intonations are often used to comfort or to elicit positive affect from a somber baby
typical developmental course of prelinguistic vocalizations during year one
2 mos: cooing (vowel-like noises)
4-6 mos: consonant sounds (babbling)
10-12 mos: children will often reserve certain sounds for particular situations
declarative gestures
the infant directs others' attention to an object by pointing at or touching it
imperative gestures
the infant tries to convince others to grant his requests thorugh such actions as pointing at candy he wantsq
receptive language
that which the individual comprehends when listening to others' speech
productive language
that which the individual is capable of expressing (producing) in his or her own speech
five categories that typically characterize a toddler's first 50 words
1)object words
2)action words
4)personal/social words
5)function words
object words IE
car, doggie, milk
action words IE
bye-bye, up, go
modifiers IE
big, hot, mine, allgone
personal/social words IE
please, thank u, no, ouch
function words IE
what, where, is, to, for
referential style
early linguistic style in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects
expressive style
early linguistic style in which toddlers use language mainly to call attention to their own and others' feelings and to regulate social interactions
the young child's tendency to use relatively specific words to refer to a broader set of object, actions, or events than adults do; IE using CAR to refer to all motor vehicles
the young child's tendency to use general words to refer to a smaller set of objects, actions, or events than adults do ; IE using CANDY to refer only to mints
five processing constraints that may guide children's inferences about the meaning of new words
1)object scope constraint
2)taxonimic constraint
3)lexical contrast constraint
4)mutual exclusivity
5)syntactical bootstrapping
object scope constraint
the notion that young children will assume that a new word applied to an object refers to the whole object rather than to parts of the object or to object attributes
taxonimic constraint
the assumption that words label categories of similar objects that share common perceptual features
lexical contrast constraint
the assumption that each word has a unique meaning
mutual exclusivity
the assumption that each object has one label and that different words refer to seperate, nonoverlapping categories
processing constraints
cognitive biases or tendencies that lead infacnts and toddlers to favor certain interpretations of the menaing of new words over other interpretations
syntactical bootstrapping
the notion that young children make inferences about the meaning of words by analyzing the way words are used in sentences and inferring whether they refer to objects, actions, or attributes
six functions of two-word sentences
1)to locate or name (there book)
2)to demand (give candy)
3)to negate (not hungry)
4)to indicate possession (my shoe)
5)to modify or qualify (big boat)
6)to question (where ball)
one-word utterances
5 grammatical morphemes that children acquire during the preschool period (in order)
1)progressive tense
2)standard plurals
5)regular past tense
morphological knowledge
one's knowldege of the meaning of morphemes that make up words
metalinguistic awareness
a knowledge of language and its properties; an understanding that language an be used for purposes other htan communicating

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