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medical terminology


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uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements (resembles spasm)
dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
inflammation of the pancreas
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
plugging; obstruction or a closing off
a drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing
agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
infection of bone and bone marrow causing inflammation
a general term for disease of the heart muscle [e.g., alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)]
agents that lower cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting the effect of HMG-CoA reductase, a liver enzyme responsible for producing cholesterol
red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream
pulmonary function testing (PFT)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
agent that induces sleep
a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis) (neuro = neither; phil = attraction for)
ejection fraction
measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
adrenal glands
located next to each kidney, the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones
front lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
fast breathing
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
profuse sweating
lymph nodes
many small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessels-major locations include the cervical region, axillary region,and inguinal region
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease (e.g., occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm)
examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope--often including interventional surgical procedure
drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
inflammation of the brain
shrinking of tissue such as muscle
central nervous sytem (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos = bag)
swollen, twisted veins (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion). Convulsion: to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
under the tongue
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms. Positive symptoms include distortions of normal function (behaviors that are absent in normal people, e.g., disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavio). Negative symptoms (normal reactions missing in persons with schizophrenia) including flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessaion (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
bony necrosis
dead bone tissue from loss of blood supply such as can occur after a fracture (sequestrum = something laid aside)
membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
myocardial infarction (MI)
heart attack; death of myocardial tissue (infarction) owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery--usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms including pain in the chest or upper body (shoulders, neck, and jaw), shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and nausea
Cushing syndrome
collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland (often caused by a tumor), or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance), hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis
muscle pain
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death) caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
temporary or permanent loss of motor control. Flaccid paralysis: defective (flabby) or absent uscle control caused by a nerve lesion. Spastic paralysis: stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder. Hemiparesis: partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
inability to breathe
inflammation of the tongue
lying down, especially in bed; i.e., lateral decubitus is lying on the side (decumbo = to lie down)
parathyroid glands
located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, functioning to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
congestive heart failure (CHF)
failure of left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet demands of body
multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high malignancy potential
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
cardiac muscle
muscle of the heart
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often int hefemoral and iliac veins
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
impaired immunological defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or therapy with immunosuppressive agents
drug that causes movement of the bowels, also called a laxative
agent that has a calming effect
stiff joint condition
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bones
frequent loose or liquid stools
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
post prandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours
blood culture
a test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
a by-way; an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
steroid hormones
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt water balance; some effect on sexual characteristics
agent that counteracts depression
sick in the stomach
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
bad breath (halitus = breath)
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus = a blowing)
heart block
an interference with the normal electrial conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block (e.g., AV block)
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart, most commonly by applying electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall but can be performed internally at the time of open heart surgery or via an implanted device
formation of thoughts or ideas [e.g., suicidal ideation (thoughts of suicide)]
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood (capno = smoke, carbo = coal)
developmental disability commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself (auto = self) in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or performingmeaningless rituals
heart muscle
away from the beginning or origin of a structure [e.g., the distal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee]
a drug that relieves fever
hoarseness (phon/o = voice or sound)
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels: mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation; used to prevent or treat angina pectoris, some arrhythmias, and hypertension
chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency
sinoatrial (SA) node
the pacemaker; highly specialized neurological tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
synovial membrane
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
situated below another structure, away from the head
flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
toward the beginning or origin of structure [e.g., the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closest to where it attaches to the hip]
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
ditch; shallow grooves that separate gyri
Parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine ( a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor; rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occurring later in life
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, period) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)
carpal tunnel syndrome
condition that results from the compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel at the wrist, characterized by pain, numbness, and tingling in the wrist and fingers and weak grip; commonly seen as a result of cumulative trauma of surrounding tendons
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
reduced muscle tone or tension
mitral or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (cuspis = point)
Grave's disease
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
a sore in the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria
examination within a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the gastrointestinal tract to detect abnormalities and perform procedures such as biopsies, excision of lesions, dilations of narrowed areas, and removal of swallowed objects
disorder affecting the central nervous sytem characterized by recurrent seizures. Tonic-clonic: stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups--previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure. Absence: seizure involving a brief loss of consciousnes without motor involvement--previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure. Partial: seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms.
indigestion (peptein = to digest)
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, or polysubstance abuse
liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process
Alzheimer disease
disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)
the process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs
type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced)--the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
pulmonary tuberculosi (Tb)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
a device used to treat slow heart rates (bradycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract, most often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but can be temporarily placed externally with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back--"on the spine"
buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
Huntington disease
hereditary disease of the central nervous system
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia-symptoms must exist for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow
red blood count
a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
in the cheek
drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used to prevent heart attack and ischemic stroke
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
abnormally increased secretion
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina = to choke)
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (luna = moon)
agent that relieves pain
pain along the course of a nerve
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope (e.g., auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds)
exact function unknown; affects onset of puberty
inflammation of a bursa
drug that raises blood glucose
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium--most often caused by atherosclerosis
inflammation of the liver
normal breathing
toward the middle (midline)
a decrease in the number of neutrophils
inflammation of the stomach
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
evacuation of feces from the rectum
type 1 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin--the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
paralysis. Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body. Paraplegia: paralysis from the waist down. Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs
lower right and left chambers of the heart
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
most common form of arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints (e.g., knee, hip); characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
range of motion (ROM)
total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements, i.e., ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct; measured in degrees
recharging of the myocardial cel from a contracted state back to a resting state (re = again; polarization = resting)
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli, occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
situated above another structure, toward the head
inability to swallow
mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
hormone replacement
drug that replaces a hormone deficiency (e.g., estrogen, testosterone, thyroid)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback condition)
resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Rh factor
the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia. Rh positive: the presence of antigens; Rh negative: the absence of antigens
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter--usually for 4 to 6 hours
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impairment that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movement as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles (arthr/o = articulation)
subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly used in treating thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
toward the side
regulate carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, functioning to secrete insulin and glucagon
a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process
multiple sclerosis (MS)
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
striated muscle
voluntary striated muscle attached to the skeleton
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
condition of narrowing of a part
condition without speech; impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
blood sugar (BS)
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
an agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity--there are four categories of lymphocytes: T cells (thymus dependent); B cells (bone marrow derived); NK cells (natural killer); K-type cells
ability to breathe only in an upright position
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordition (palsy = paralysis)
a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-color stain of its granules, that increases with allergy and some infections [eos = dawn-colored (rosy); phil = attraction for]
gastric lavage
oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment [e.g., to remove blood clots from the stomach and monitor bleeding (lavage = to wash)
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized (resting) state to a state of contraction (de = not; polarization = resting)
affects masculinization and reproduction
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
stool occult blood study
chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
red blood in the stool (chezo = defecate)
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
atrioventricular (AV) node
neurological tisue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, natural disaster, etc.; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates as seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation (keto = alter)
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
blood chemistry panel
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions (e.g., metabolic panel, lipid panel, arthritis panel)
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
most crippling form of arthritis characterized by a chronic, systemic inflammation most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in the hands and feet) causing ankylosis (stiff joints) and deformity
muscular dystrophy
a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles (Duchenne's type is most common)
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
mucous membranes
thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, viscid (sticky) fluid
ACE inhibitor
a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme; used in the treatment of hypertension
bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
the presence of red blood cells of unequal size (an = without; iso = equal)
Purkinje fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurological diseases to develop; it is transmitted sexually or through exposure to contaminated blood
inflammation of the larynx
inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
gouty arthritis
acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint (especially the great toe) caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)
a drug that lowers blood pressure
splitting crack; deep grooves in the brain
loss of appetite (orexia = appetite)
excessive thirst
compression of a part
ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a fast of 12 hours
transient ichemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment)--often precedes a CVA
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g., amebic dysentery)
drug that lowers blood glucose (e.g., insulin)
bundle of His
neurological fibers, extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches, that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
increase in the size of tissue such as muscle
portion of the central nervous sytem contained within the cranium
normal blood pressure
cerebrospianl fluid (CSF)
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
protrusion of a part from its normal location
infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (constipo = to press together)
electrocardiogram (ECG)
an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the letters P, Q, R, S, and T, corresponding to events of the cardiac cycle
nasogastric (NG) intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes (e.g., to obtain a gastric fluid specimen for analysis)
condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and liable to fracture (porosis = passage)
back fo the body
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve of its roots
regulate carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
inflammation of the sinuses
a drug that relieves pain
front of the body
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life (e.g., the thought that a door is not locked, with repetitive checking to make sure that it is locked; thoughts that one's body has been contaminated, with repetitive washing)
excision of a diseased appendix
type of malignant bone tumor
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale
normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node (average rate of 60 to 100 beats/minute)
shallow breathing
hypertension (HTN)
high blood pressure
to grow, an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
restless, dissatisfied mood
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs (ptysis = to spit)
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
slow heart rate (<60 beats/minute)
cardiac output (CO)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from either ventricle of the heart per minute
drug that decreases motility in the gastrointestinal tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
a partial dislocation (luxation = dislocation)
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places (e.g., a woman with a beard)
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi (blood clots) (e.g., streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator [TPA or tPA]
high-pitched, musical sounds heared on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway--occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes
joint pain
a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
impaired ability to provide an immune response
an increase of immature erythrocytes in the blood
major depression
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
difficulty breathing
pyloric stenosis
narrowed condition of the pylorus
rigor or rigidity
stiffness; stiff muscle
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter; causes burning pain in the esophagus
antithyroid drug
agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
the presence of enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
pyloric sphincter
opening of the stomach into the duodenum
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
slow breathing
liquid portion of the blood and lymph containing water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, and cellular components (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)
located one on each side within the scrotum in the male, functioning to secrete testosterone
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
bariatric surgery
treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines; procedures include restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food (baros = weight; iatric = pertains to treatment)
inflammation of the appendix
anorexia nervosa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses (trop/o = a turning)
inflammation of the rectum and anus
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
thin, watery discharge from the nose
deep breathing
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation (goiter = throat)
muscle tumor
fast heart rate (>100 beats/minute)
inflammation of the mouth
pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain, the anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulting hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
glucose (sugar) in the urine
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercapnia
fluid originating in the organs and tissues of the body that is circulated through the lymph vessels
a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
synovial fluid
lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood (kalium = potassium)
a stationary blood clot
emotional feeling or mood
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
complete blood count
the most common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes; the following is a listing of the component tests included in a CBC (note: CBC results are usually reported within normal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the laboratory; normal ranges also may vary depending on factors such as the region and climate)
bone pain
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions
membrane enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
inflammation of a tendon
a joint; the point where two bones come together
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium of the heart valves
false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things (alucinor = to wander in mind)
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting (coagulation)
drug that neutralizes stomach acid
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampon = a plug)
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
inflammation of the bronchi
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
bone marrow tumor
inflammation of the pancreas
a broken or cracked bone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
lying down
stroke volume (SV)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
drug that prevents or stops vomiting
low blood pressure
upper respiratory infection (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular flutter (typically from 250 to 350 beats/minute)
white blood count
a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea, contains vocal cords
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
inflammation of the gums
to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
a chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow; classified according to the types of white cells affected (e.g., myelocytic, lymphocytic)
arterial blood gases (ABG)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
a group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties (e.g., ibuprofen, aspirin) commonly used to treat arthritis
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body (such as a length of saphenous vein from the leg or mammary artery from the chest wall) to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue; the traditional method includes temporary arrest of the heart with circulation (bypass) of the patient's blood through a heart-lung machine during the procedure-an alternative off-pump approach uses a stabilizer to perform the procedure on the beating heart
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
enlargement of the liver
inflammation of muscle
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
lack of interest or display of emotion
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
enlargement of the spleen
largest portion of the brain; it is divided into the right and left halves known as icerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
nosebleed (epi = upon; stazo = to drip)
pulmonary embolism (PE)
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red blood cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of the red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues; common types follow: aplastic anemia (a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells) b) iron deficiency anemia: a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron, affecting production of hemoglobin and characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin) c) pernicious anemia: a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
the presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells (poikil/o = irregular)
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
upper right and left chambers of the heart
a clot (e.g., air, fat, foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges (embolus = a stopper)
cystic fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage
drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting,and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
vomiting blood
noise; an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within
termination of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical or by delivery of electrical energy
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible, narrow tube or catheter through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood, measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels, and inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film (motion picture) imaging of the chambers of the heart and coronary arteries--very often includes interventional procedures such as angioplasty and atherectomy
beta blockers
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure withing the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin (myx = mucous)
low level of sodium ions in the blod
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
excessive urination
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion (dementio = to be mad)
to expand; period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
low blood sugar
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphasan = to inflate)
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function--there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose (deliro = to draw the furrow awry in plowing, i.e., to go off the rails)
inflammation of the meninges
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
the presence of small red blood cells

Deck Info