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Linguistics 100 final definitions


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Absolute vs. Relative frame of reference
Absolute- (fixed external reference point)- north, south, east, west, uphill, downhill, inland, oceanward, upriver, downriver
Relative- left, right, in front of, behind.
Sounds produced by complete obstruction of airflow, followed by slight release of the articulators, allowing frication. AKA a stop followed by a fricative. [ʧ](church), [ʤ](judge).
One of a set of non-distinctive realizations of the same phoneme. English [n] and [Å‹]. Interchangeable in a language- doesn't impact meaning.
One of a set of non-distinctive realizations of a particular morpheme that ahve the same function and are phonetically similar. English -ed can appear as [əd] in started, [-t] as in picked, [-d] as in loved.
Description of sounds produced by making contact between the tongue and alveolar ridge. t, d, s, z, n, l, ɹ.
antonymy: contradictory, contrary, scalar aspiration.
Words that are in some sense opposite. Contradictory (aka complimentary)- only two choices, must be one or the other- on/off, visible, invisible, . Contrary (aka relational)- Opposites within a relationship. Everything is ether X, or Y or neither. doctor/patient, coffee/tea, over/under, alive/dead.
Scalar (aka gradable)- two opposing points on a scale- good/bad, strong/weak, hot/cold. Use "quite" in sentence as a test.
A puff of air that follows the release of a consonant when there is a delay in the onset of voicing. Symbolized by a superscript h.
basic (elsewhere) vs. restricted allophone
An allophone of a phoneme that is used when none of the change inducing conditions are fulfilled. Least limited. English Retroflex vs alveolar r. Can be free interchanged.
Restricted allophone- The allophone of a phoneme that apeas in a more limited set of phonetic environments. [Å‹] replaced [n] when followed by g or k.
Sound produced by bringing both lips together. [p, b, m, w]
multiple parts expressed as a single morpheme- motion + manner, cause, path, figure but not ground normally.
deletion (phonology)
process by which a sound present in the phonemic form (underlying form) is removed from the phonetic form in certain environments. /h/ may be deleted in unstressed syllables. handed her his hat- [hi hændəd r ɪz hæt]
The entity to which a word or linguistic expression relates. For the word "table" it is actually a physical table.
diphthong vs. monophthong
Diphtohong- a two part vowel sound consisting of a vowel and a glide in the same syllable. English [aɪ] buy, [aʊ] bow down, [ɔɪ] (boy), [oʊ] arrow, [eɪ] bay.
Monophthong- i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, a, ə, ʌ, ʊ, u, ɔ.
downward entailment
Whenever we have to verb phrases VP₁and VP₂such that VP₁is always a subset of VP₂then [DET N VP₂ entails [DET N VP₁]. Usually used in phrases with particular determiners- 'no', 'at most'- No student got a grade in Ling 100 entails no student got a good grade in Ling 100.
VP₁= got a good grade in Ling100, VP₂= got a grade Ling 100.
Mattuchi runs fast entails Mattuchi runs.
Free variation
Term used to refer to two sounds that occur in overlapping environments but cause no distinction in the meanings of the respective words. Aspirated [p] can replace un-aspriated [p] freely without context requirement or change of meaning.
Sounds made by forming a nearly complete obstruction of the airstream so that when air passes through the small passage, turbulent airflow (frication) is produced. f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ]
front, central, back
front- i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ,
central- ə, ʌ
back- u, ÊŠ, o, É”, a
Sounds produced with a closure in the vocal tract that is only slightly more constricted than that for vowels. j, w.
Sounds produced with the glottis.
Ê”, h
Gricean Maxims:
Conversation rules that regulate conversation by enforcing compliance with the Cooperative principle. (what one says contributes to the purpose of conversation).
Gricean Maxim: Quality
1. Do not say what you believe to be false.
2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
Gricean Maxim: Relation or Relevence
Be relevant- stay on topic
Gricean Maxim: Quantity
1. make your contribution as informed as required.
2. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
Gricean Maxim: Manner
1. Avoid obscurity of expression.
2. Avoid ambiguity.
3. Be brief.
4. Be orderly.
high, mid, low
high- i, ɪ, u, ʊ
mid- e, ə, ɛ, ʌ, o, ɔ
low- æ, a
Phonological process by which a segment in the phonemic or underlying form, is added to the phonetic form. athlete [æθəlit] schwa is added.
Term used to refer to sounds produced by positioningthe tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth. [θ, ð]
intersection (intersective) vs. non-intersective adjectives.
Intersetion-Adjectives that are a set, which when added to nouns of a set, intersect to a subset. all red things, all roses- subset- red roses.
Non-intersective- comparative adjectives (big- as in big mouse)
Anti- as in fake Rolex or former professor.
Alleged unabomber
intonation vs. tone.
Intonation- commonly refers to the patterns of pitch movements across a stretch of speech such as a sentence. Can impact meaning.
tone- pitch at which the syllables of a word are pronounced; can make a difference in meaning.
inverse scope
second interpretation of ambiguous sentences. In Two professors irritate every graduate student, it is the meaning in which verb2 has domain over the subject.- Every grad student has two (possibly different) profs who irritate him/her.
Sounds produced by making contact between the lower lip and the upper teeth. f, v.
Consonant sounds made by an obstruction of airflow that is less narrow than that of stops or fricatives, but more narrow than glides. l, r.
minimal pair
Two words that vary only by one single sound, and have different meanings. They determine allophones of separate phonemes. map and nap.
sounds produced by making a complete obstruction of the airflow in the oral cavity and by lowering the velum to allow air to pass through the nasal cavity. n, m, Å‹
natural class
a group of sounds in a language that satisfy a description to the exclusion of other sounds in that language. nasals, voiced, stops,etc. Also- obstruents and sonorants
near-minimal pair
Like minimal pairs, except words have an addition sound different. fart vs. hard
A natural class of sounds produced with an obstruction of the airflow in the oral cavity while the nasal cavity is closed off. Includes oral stops, fricatives and affricates.
Sounds (usually voiced) produced with a relatively open passage of air flow. Nasals, liquids, glides, and vowels
Refers to sounds made with the tongue approximating the hard part of the roof of the mouth (hard palate). ʃ,ʒ,j,ʤ,ʧ
A class of speech sounds identified by a native speaker as the same sound. English n, Å‹
polysynthetic (morphology/language)
A type of language that attaches several affixes to a stem to indicate grammatical relationships- Latin
Principle of Compositionality
Frege's principle- the meaning of a sentence is determined by the meaning of its words and by the syntactic structure in which they are combined.
rounded vs. unrounded
rounded: u, ÊŠ,É”,o
unrounded: all else
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
We are at the mercy of our language which impacts our thoughts. We must mentally encode experiences in sucha way that we can describe them later, in terms required by our language.
Static vs dynamic palatography
static- olive oil and charcoal on tongue to see where it touches palate.
dynamic- electronically charged palate senses tongue touching palate.
Nasal and oral.
Nasals, air is stopped at velum. n, m Å‹
Oral- air is stopped in oral cavity then released.
p, b, t, d, k, g, Ê”
structural ambiguity
groupings of words change meaning.
More intelligent administrators.
shot the soldier with the gun
pragmatic ambiguity
practical meaning is different from semantic meaning.
Can you tell me the time?
a unit of pronunciation that consists of at least a nucleus, maybe a coda and onset.
two or more words with the same referent. Sofa and couch.
tense vs lax
tense- i, e, u, o
lax- all others
soft part of roof of mouth (velum) k, g, Å‹
vocal folds
muscles in larynx that open and close for voicing of sounds.
voiced vs voiceless
voiced: b m w v ð d z n l ɹ ʒ ʤ g ŋ j w
voiceless: p f θ s t ʃ ʧ k h ʔ
VP Topicalization
A verb phrase is replaced by a verb.
We thought the new doctrine would prosper, and prosper it did.

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