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Psych concepts from Chapter 7 - Memory


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The process of putting information into memory is called?
represents information as sequences of sounds...
Acoustic encoding
represents information in the form of images
visual encoding
represents the meaning of information
semantic encoding
holding information in memory over time
pulling inforation out of memory and into consciousness after it has beed stored is called....
memory of event that happened while one was present
episodic memory
the mental representation of an experience by its general meaning
semantic memory
a type of memory containing information about how to do things
Procedural memory
The process in which people intentionally try to remember something and are conciously aware of doing so
explicit memory
The unintentional influence of prior experiences.
implicit memory
a view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed
levels-of-processing model
repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory
maintenance rehearsal
involves thinking about how new material relates to information already stored in long term memory.
elaborative rehearsal
This model suggest that the most important memory determinant is how well the encoding process matches what is retrieved.
transfer-appropriate processing
Just seeing the word sofa, for example, allows us immediately to gain access to knowledge about what a sofa looks like, what it is used for, where it tends to be located, who might buy one, and the like.
parallel distributed processing models
if encoding doesnt match retrieval you have poor recall (performance goes down/memory suffers)
encoding specificity principle
model of memory in which information is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long term memory
information-processing model
information from the senses- sights or sounds- a type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming information very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next.
sensory memory
Your at a carnival and it is so crowded. There are rides everywhere, a kid crying, and people laughing. Out of all thats going on you choose to focus yourself on the kid crying even though your sensory organs retain all the other things going on around y
selective attention
You look up a phone in the phone book, and repeat the number as you dial it, by the time you get off the phone, you probably wont remember that number.
short term memory
Evidence support of this assertion comes from analyzing the mistakes people make when encoding information in the short term memory. ( by sound)
acoustic encoding
You have a list of names. remember them 2 by 2 then add the next 2 and the next two and keep going until you cant remember all of them together anymore.
imediate memory span
maintenance rehearsal
someone tells you a phone number and you dont have a sheet of paper. Until you get a sheet of paper you repeat it over and over to yourself until you get that peice of paper
involves thinking about how new material relates to information already stored in long-term memory.
elaborative rehearsal
Looks at the boy to try and remember his name...Keisha...ohh....Kevin!
This model suggest that the most important memory determinant is how well the encoding process matches what is retrieved.
A waitress has many different orders. She has to remember all the things one person wants verses another person wants. Example: Peter (milk eggs and bread), Sarah (cereal, butter, apple pie)
part of the memory system who encoding and storage capabilities can produce memories that last a lifetime.
long term memory
encoding in long term memory often ignores details and instead encodes the general, underlying meaning of the information. Example: Give people a sentence verbally and give them the same sentence on paper. SOme cant remember if the two match, they rememb
semantic encoding
I ask Sarah to memorize some digits...then before I ask her to write those digits down I tell her to count by threes for a little while. Then I ask her to write those digits I asked her to memorize down. The counting by threes was down to prevent her fro
Brown-Peterson procedure
when we remember words at the beginning of a list better than those in the middle of the list.
primary effect
The ease of recalling words near the end of a list.
recency effect
Studying for a test where the test will be given
context-dependent theory
While studying for a test Mike drunk root beer all night. When he took the test he did poorly, but later on that night when he drunnk root beer the answers to teh test came back to him.
state-dependent memory
people tend to remember positive things from the past when there in a postive mood, but when in negative mood tehy remember negative things from the past.
mood-congruency effect
Jack has not used a pogo stick since he was 8. His memory of how to do it is not entirely gone, however there is still some notion there. It took him less time to relearn the skill now than it took to learn it initially
methods of savings
Larry learned Latin in highschool and has not spoken it for years. When he trys to speak latin to his girlfriend he can not remember the vocab for sentence he wants to say.
One peice of info displaces another one, pushing it out of memory.
Helen is learning French right now, but when she learns German next year it will be hard to learn because of the French she learned.
proactive interference
Helen has trouble remembering Spanish words form last year because she is now taking a French course
retroactive interference
Sarah had a brain injury so now she can't remember new people she meet, because she us unable to form new memories
anterograde amnesia
John has had a brain injury so now he can not remember things of his life that took place months, or years ago
retrograde amnesia
Jen is suppose to remember the 5 Great Lakes, so she comes up with this strategy.. HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
In trying to remmeber the grocery list you come up with tomatoes smashed against the front door, or bananas hanging from the bedroom ceiling.
method of loci
studying for a test and cramming in a one ten- hour block.
masses practices
You only have ten hours to study for a test. It is good to take breaks in that ten hour break instead of going straight through so material will stay fresh and new.
distributed practices
Mary showed Joey a picture of a birthday party with family, ballons, and cake. After Joey examined the picture he was asked did he see any of these things adding on to it, presents. He said yes he saw presents. The truth is there were not presents in the
constructed memory
Dee told his friend he just bought a new car, His friend knows without asking that , like all other cars he has seen, the car has four wheels. However, he could be biased in that all cars may not have four wheels around the world.
spontaneous generalizations
theories of memory suggest that networks like these allows us to retrieve specific pieces of previously learned info and to make new inferences about concepts.
semantic network

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