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midterm de pysch


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the guiding behavior closer and closer to the desired behavior---"training to roll over"
positive reinforcement
presentaion of positive stimuli (praise/money/treat)
negative reinforcement
getting rid of/ cessation of negative stimuli (not punishment) (e.g. stress)
intrinsic motivation
desire to do a behavior for its own sake (internal desire)
extrinsic motivation
desire to do a behavior do to some promised reward or 2 avoid punishment
classical conditioning
the association of stimuli (learning) usually 2 factors
unconditional response
unconditioned stimulus
a natural auto-trigger
conditioned response
learned response to stimulus
conditioned stimuli
originally irrelevant stimulus
operant conditioning
we behave according to what happens to our behavior strengthened if followed by reinforcer diminished if followed by punisher
diminishing response(no longer signals response)
tendency for similar conditioned stimulis to elict a similar response (tone and bell)
difference btwn classical and operant conditioning
classical-events we can't control operant- our behavior and resulting events
mirror neurons provide
help us learn even when watching/activate neurons in the brain
most likely to imitate
when followed by reinforcer prosocial behavior-modeling-after parents-consistency pro social most effective
getting info into the brain automatic and effortful
retaining info
get back info
rehearsal (recall)
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier (fill-in-the-blank)
identify items previously learned (multiple choice)
a memory measure that asseses time/ amount of time saved when learining material for a second time
loss of memory
cognitive psychologists
study the mental activities associated with processing/understanding/remembering/communicating
a mental image or best example of category
categorizing concepts by perceiving something is there
methodical step-by-step logical rule/procedure that guarantees solving the problem (always solves problem)
a simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently (problem solved efficiently and simplisticly)
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem it contrasts with strategy based solutions
the inablility to see a problem from a new perspective and hiderance to problem solving
confirmation bias
the tendency to search for infoormation that confirms our preconceptions
representative heuristics
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match a particular way
the tendency to be more confident then correct--caused our use of heuristic judgements eagerness to confirm belief explaining failure create
framings effect on decisions
the way an issue is presented-can effect judgement and decisions
receptive language
ability to comprehend speech movement of voic/sound--locking at person
productive language
ability to produce words
stages of speech
babbling-(4mnths) spont. variety of sounds (not Imitation) one word stage-(1-2 yrs) single words two-word stage-(2 and on) two words
universal grammar
chomsky believed all humans shared
linguistic determination
worf's hypothesis about language--language determines the way in which we think
general intelligens-a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities therfor measured by every task on intelligence test
savat syndrome/gardner
there is not just one specific intelligence but many independent ones
components of creativity
expertise/imaginative thinking/a venturesome personality/intrinsic motivation/creative environment
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive/understand/manage and use emotion
achievement tests
what a person has learned
predict future performance
defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of a pre-tested standardization group
the extent to which a tests yield consistent results
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
1st-physiological needs(food and water)--saftey--self esteem

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