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cognitive last quiz!


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Cultural learning
passing info and behaviors that have been learned on to others within a generation and to future generations (good things to eat, hunting strategies, etc.)
what underlies cultural learning
perspective taking
Imitative learning
(9 months) to really do this, the learner must register the goal of the action (take the perspective of the model and understand why they are doing it)
instructional learning
(4 years) this includes direct instruction. The child must also understand the goal of the action from the perspective of the teacher.
collaborative learning
(6 years) working together to solve a problem. in this situation, the child must understand that the other person can take the perspective of others.
perspective taking
gradually develops and enables the child to learn in different types of situations. This is unique to humans and means that we can pass info on accurately through generations. Each generation does not have to rediscover the same things for themselves
to perceive humor, children must be able
to perceive incongruity. they need to be able to see that there is a difference between what is expected and what happens.
for something to be funny we have to know...
what should happen in that situation
a joke is funny when
we are mentally challenged by it, but it isn't too difficult for us to understand
as children develop cognitively, their sense of humor will
also develop and change with their cognitive level
stage one humor development
18-24 months: substituting one object for another in pretend play (shoe for a telephone)
stage 2: humor development
(2 years) first verbal jokes--calling an object by the wrong name
stage 3 humor
3 years distortion of perceptual features
stage 4 humor
(6-7) double meanings of words and sentences
gender identification
incorporating the roles and values of one's gender
kohlberg's gender
follow piaget's model of cognitive development --completely mature concept of gender appears around age 7, the level of concrete operations
gender constancy
gender stays the same even if outside appearances stay
gender identity
being able to correctly identify one's own gender and the gender of others (achieved around 2.5)
gender stability
achieved around 4 or 5--gender stays the same over time
gender consistency
achieved around 6 or 7 gender stays the same despite the changes in behavior and dress
gender schema
a mental structure of expectations and associations that guides processing and helps organization with respect to gender
if a child thinks that an activity is appropriate for their gender they will be...
more likely to seek out information about it
older children have more knowledge
of gender sterotypes than younger children
girls have more flexibility in
gender sterotypes. if an activity is labeled ok for both genders--they will be more likely to pursue that activity than boys
gender scripts
organized event sequences related to gender
bauer 25 months--delayed imitation
both sexes likely to imitate an opposite sex activity, this tendency develops earlier and is more extreme for boys
gender knowledge---there is a correlation between
intelligence and gender knowledge (ex: children with higher vocab tend to show more sex typed play)
children develop theories about gender--sometimes
they are wrong
social cognition
invovles many areas--anything that involves our thinking about the social world
we are very good at social interactions, but there are still individual differences in ability
reading is based on
language development
unlike other aspects of language development, reading is
not a "natural" part of development
reading is
hard, slow, and takes effort and kids make mistakes unlike with learning to speak
stage 0 (preschool-kindergarten)
prerequisites of reading: learning the alphabet, recognize letters, a beginning realization that words can be recognized and used as symbols. at this stage, children may learn to recognize certain words in their environment
stage 1: (1st grade)
beginning reading: this stage includes the first formal reading instruction. Children begin to learn phonology recording (the connections between sounds and letters)
stage 2: (2nd grade-3rd grade)
learning to read: children begin to learn to read fluently. even though there children can read wrods and sentences, reading is effortful, so comprehension may not be good
stage 3 (4th-8th grade)
reading to learn: children at this tage can read well, and comprehend what they read. reading becomes a tool through which they learn other material
stage 4: (high school)
proficient reading: children begin to be able to comprehend written material in a variety of areas and can draw inferences from what they read
emergent literacy
the skills and knowledge that provide developmental basis for reading
components of emergent literacy
language, conventions of print, knowledge of letters, linguistic awareness, phoneme-grapheme correspondence, emergent reading, emergent writing, print motivations, other cognitive skills
reading build on lang skills. if you only speak english, you can't speak swedish
conventions of print
learning that reading (in english) goes left to right and top to bottom
knowledge of letters
learning the alphabet and being able to recognize letters
linguistic awareness
learning to recognize and separate units of language (words, syallables, morphemes and phonemes)
phoneme-grapheme correspondence
learning to map sounds of words onto the written symbols (letters in english) (this can be tricky)
emergent reading
pretend reading. children may "read" a story from memory, or from looking at the pictures and making up a story
emergent writing
pretend writing: children pretend to write notes, etc. (squiggles) shows interest in writing and may also illustrate knowledge of the conventions of print (writing from left to right)
print motivation
being interested in readin and writing. children may be interested in what things say, and may be motivated to learn to read so that they don't have to ask someone else
other cognitive skills
memory, attention, lang abilities etc...may affect reading abilities
in genderal, having several of these factors
predicts better reading than having a few of them, although a specific connectino between individual factors and later reading may not be easy to detect
phonemic awareness
ability to separate out the sounds of words--need to do in order to read
4 and 5 may not be good at this ability yet. being good predicts better reading ability
phonemin awareness plays a causal role in
reading ability
phonological recording
learning which sounds and which combinations of sounds correspond to letters (phonics)--not easy in english
eventually becomes automatic and words are recognized by retrieval rather than sounding out
working memory affect on reading
a larger working memory span tends to have better comprehension probably because they can hold more info in mind at once in order to draw connections between the material
knowledge base on reading
how much you already know can affect--may be proficient reading, but may not show sophisticated reading in all circumstances
monitorying(meta reading ability)
if you can monitor how much you are comprenhending, you may be able to change reading strategies (i.e. rereading, slowing down, etc.)
bottom up processes
perceptual info that is in the environment (in this case, the actual letters in the words and how to sound them out)
top down processes
how info that is already in the mind effects the process (in this case, goals, background knowledge, expectations, etc.)
phonics emphasizes which approach
bottom up--the main point is to learn how each letter sounds and how to combine these sounds when reading
whole language approach
top down---emphasize meaning--this approach would emphasize children' reading something they are interested in and using inofr from context to figure out what it says
two rows of pennies, m and ms...etc..
ask child if rows are the same, spread out one row, ask again. Conserver will say yes, non conserver will say one row has more now
one to one correspondence (Piaget)
children are unable to successfully establish this between the items in the two rows--will choose the less dense row as having more, since they are unable to ignore the perceptual differences (one row is longer)

children can establish, but knowledge is fragile
when child achieves conservation of number, they realize that
moving one row does not change the equivalence relationship
the ability to accurately determine the number of items in a small (1-4) items group
a basic understanding of more than and less than. for humans, tis is limited to groups of 5 or less
a preverbal system for enumeration of small numbers. all cultures use serial ordered numbering for counting, measuring, simple arithmitic once lang. is developed.
simple arithmetic
an early sensitiveity to increases and decreases in the number of small groups
one to one principle
each item is associated with one and only one counting word
the stable order principle
number names have a stable, repeatable order
cardinal principle
the final number in the series represents the quantity of the set
children may assume some counting principles that are
not necessary (have to start at the left)
children show conservation within
the range of their counting ability (if they can count to fie, the can conserve up to five)
eventually once countin reaches a high enough number, the child is able to
extend their knowledge to realize that number remaines the same if nothing is added or takedn away
piaget and counting
used numbers higher than the child could count to establish conservation (THE STRONGEST TEST OF CONSERVATION)
piaget stated that children did not really understand math until they understood
reversibility---tested by showing children an array of 8 items and then splitting the array first in half and then again unevenly (4+4 or 1+7)
stage one (5-6) math array
the youngest children believed that splitting the array differently made the total amount different
stage 2 math array
children could then relize the groups were the same by counting them
stage 3 (7 year olds)
children knew that the groups were equivalent w/o counting
sum strategy
starting by countin gup the first addend and then countin to count the 2nd addend....1,2,3....1,2,3,4,5...accurate, but not efficient
shortcut sum
start with the first addend ad the second addened. (3 + 5..3,4,5,6,7,8
min stategy
staring with the larger addend, count the second added. more effiecnt than the sum or shortcut
fact retrieval
recalling from memory that 3 + 5 = 8..efficient, but takes practice to achieve (similar to reading word retrieval)
transforming the problem into simpler problems the most useful with larger addition....53+27....20+50....3+7...==70+10
social learning theory bandura
based on classical and operant conditioning...but allows that children don't need explicit reinforcement to shape theri bheavior...children can learn from observational learning, watching a model and noting outcome (reward/punish)
reciprocal determinism
children are influenced by others, but also determine how others respond to them
socil behavior can be thought about and manipulated in the form of symbols
children can anticipate consequences of their actions and anticipate the actions of others
self regulation
children can control and modify their behavior in order to meet standards
self reflection
children can analyze their thoughts and actions
vicarious learning
observational learing--learning without explicit reinforcement, as from a model
imitation is not...
necessary for learning to have occurred
young childre overestimate their
abilities---they may thing they can imitate something that they see en if they don't have the physical abilities to do it
self efficacy
how effective a person feels they are
if you think you aren't effective at a certain task, you may not perform up to your ability
interactions with teachers and parents build efficacy
preschoolers with positive self efficacy
tend to overestimate their abilities--this may help them develop new skills since they will be more likely to try new things an to persist if a task is diffictul (they can stil accurately predict another childn's abilities--this is specific to their predictions of their own abilities)
a child who displays helplessness will avoid challenges will not persist if a task is difficult and if they fail they will be likely to say that it is because they lack ability (trying harder won't help, they just can't do it)
mastery orientation
a child who displays a master orientation will seek out challenges, persist in difficult tasks, and be likely to attribute failure to a lack of effor (if they try harder, maybe they can do it)
social information processing (dodge)
thei model uses info processing ideas in explaining thinking and actins in the social world
taking in info about the social situation this requires attnention perception abilities and knowledge about which cues are most important
what does this info mean? experiences with social situations and people allows children to develop rules for interpreting social info. this happens quickly and is probably not consicious
response search
this involves generating a list of possible reponses that the child could make...being able to think of more possible reponses gives a child more options and increases his her chances of finding a reponse which is socially competent
response evaluation
what consequences might result from each possbile response which possible reaction would be most liekly to lead to a good outcome
actually perform the chosen behavior
children with socail problems (ex aggression..)....
may have problems wiht social info processing. problems at any step may lead to a less socially competet response...example, a child may by more likely to interpret others actions as intentionally hostile which would bias them toward an aggressive response...or a child may have only a limited number of responses to choose from most of which are aggressive responses
research has supported the prediction that aggressive children
show problems with social info processing...aslo suggest methods for helping these children, for example, teaching them more non aggressive reponses so they will hav emore options

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