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# 4th Grade Harcourt Math Vocabulary

## Terms

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period
Each group of three digits separated by commas in a multidigit number
expression
A part of a number sentence that combines numbers and operation signs but does not have an equal sign
millions
The period after thousands
variable
A letter or symbol that stands for a number or numbers
benchmark
A known number of things that helps you understand the size or amount of a different number of things
Commutative Property of Addition
The property that states that when the order of two addends is changed, the sum is the same
round
To replace a number with another number that tells about how many or how much
Associative Property of Addition
The property that states that you can group addends in different ways and still get the same sum
Identity Property of Addition
The property that states that when you add zero to any number, the sum is that number
century
A measure of time equal to 100 years
equation
A number sentence which shows that two quantities are equal
A measure of time equal to 10 years
second
A small unit of time; 60 seconds = 1 minute
survey
A method of gathering information to record data
elapsed time
The time that passes from the start of an activity to the end of that activity
frequency
The number of times an event ocurs
cumulative frequency
A running total of items being counted
line plot
A graph that shows the frequency of data along a number line
mean
The number found by dividing the sum of the set of numbers by the number of addends
range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data
median
The middle number in an ordered set of data
outlier
A value separated from the rest of the data
mode
The number (s) or item(s)that occur most often in a set of data
stem - and - leaf plot
A data display that shows groups of data arranged by place value
stem
A tens digit in a stem-and leaf plot
double-bar graph
A graph used to compare similar kinds of data
leaf
A ones digit in a stem-leaf plot
trends
On a graph, areas where the data increase, decrease, or stay the same over time
scale
The numbers placed at fixed distances on a graph to help label the graph
line graph
A graph that uses a line to show how data change over a period of time
interval
The difference between two numbers on the sale of a graph
circle graph
A graph in the shape of a circle that shows data as a whole made up of different parts
inverse operations
Opposite operations that undo each other, such as addition and subtraction or multiplication and division
Zero Property of Multiplication
The property that states that the product of 0 and any number is 0
fact family
A set of related multiplication and division or addition and subtaction equations
Commutative Property of Multiplication
The property that states that when the order of two factors is changed, the product is the same
multiple
The product of a given whole number and another whole number
Associative Property of Multiplication
The property that states that you can group factors in different ways and still get the same product
Identity Property of Multiplication
The property that states that the product of any number and 1 is that number
order of operations
Rules for performing operations in expressions with more than one operation; do the operations inside parentheses, then multiply and divide from left to right, then add and subtract from left to right
compatible numbers
Numbers that are easy to compute mentally
divisible
Capable of being divided so that the quotient is a whole number and the remainder is zero
Distributive Property
The property that states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend b the number and then adding the products
prime number
A number that has only two factors: 1 and itself
multistep problem
A problem requiring more than one step to solve
composite number
A whole number that has more than two factors
remainder
The amount left over when a number cannot be divided evenly
square number
The product of a number and itself
square root
One of two equal factors of a number
ray
a part of a line that has one endpoint and continues without end in one direction
point
An exact location in space
plane
A flat surface that extends without end in all dirterctions
line
A straight path of points in a plane that continues without end in both directions with no endpoints
angle
A figure formed by two line segments or rays that share the same endpoint
line segment
A part of a line that includes two points called endpoints and all the points between them
vertex
The point at which two rays of an angle or two or more line segments meet in a plane figure or at which three or more edges meet in a solid figure
protractor
A tool for measuring the size of an angle
obtuse angle
An angle that has a measure greater than 90 and less than 180
degree ( )
A unit for measuring angles or temperatures
straight angle
An angle that has a measure of 180
right angle
An angle that forms a square corner and has a measure of 90
intersecting lines
Lines that cross each other at exactly one point
acute angle
An angle that has a measure greater than 0 and less than 90
parallel lines
Lines in the same plane that never intersect and are always the same distance apart
perpendicular lines
Two lines that intersect to form four right angles
A polygon with four sides
polygon
A closed plane figure with straight sides, each of which is a line segment
pentagon
A polygon with five sides
regular polygon
A polygon whose sides are all the same length
hexagon
A polygon with six sides
triangle
A polygon with three sides
octagon
A polygon with eight sides
triangular pyramid
A pyramid that has a triangular base and three triangular faces
net
A two-dimensional pattern that can be folded to make a three-dimensional figue
edge
The line segment where two or more faces of a solid figure meet
volume
The measure of the amount of space a solid figure occupies
face
A polygon that is a flat surface of a solid figure
cubic unit
A unit of volume with dimensions of 1 unit * 1 unit * 1 unit
equivalent decimals
Two or more decimals that name the same amount
area
The number of square units needed to cover a surface
perimeter
The distance around a figure
two-dimensional
Measured in two directions, such as length and width
formula
A set of symbols that expresses a mathematical rule
three-dimensional
Mesured in three directions, such as length, width, and height
circumference
The distance around a circle
triangular prism
A solid figure that has two triangular bases and three rectangular faces
milliliter (mL)
A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1,000 milliliters = 1 liter
kilogram (kg)
A metric unit for measuring mass; 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams
liter (L)
A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1 liter - 1,000 milliliters
ounce (oz)
A customary unit for measuring weight; 16 of these are equivalent to 1 pound
pound (lb)
A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 16 ounces
ton (T)
A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 2,000 pounds
millimeter (mm)
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1,000 millimeters = 1 meter
centimeter (cm)
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 100 centimeters = 1 meter
decimeter (dm)
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 10 decimeters = 1 meters
meter (m)
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 meter = 100 centimeters
kilometer (km)
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters
mile (mi)
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 5,280 feet
cup (c)
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 8 ounces
capacity
The amount a container can hold when filled
pint (pt)
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 cups
teaspoon (tsp)
A customary unit for measuring cpacity; 3 of these are equivalent to 1 tablespoon
quart (qt)
A customary unit of measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 pints
tablespoon (tbsp)
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 3 teaspoons
gallon (gal)
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 4 quarts
unlikely
Having a less that even chance of ahppening
linear units
Units for measuring length, width, height, or distance
equally likely
Having the same chance of happening
inch (in.)
A customary unit for measuring length or distance; 12 of these are equivalent to 1 foot
mathematical probability
A comparison of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes of an event
foot (ft)
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 12 inches
tree diagram
An organized list that shows all possible outcomes of an event
yard (yd)
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 3 feet
simplest form
The state a fraction is in when 1 is the only number that can divide evenly into both the numerator and denominator
outcome
A possible result of an experiment
mixed number
An amount given as a whole number and a fraction
event
One outcome or a combination of outcomes in an experiment
like fractions
Fractions with the same denominator
predict
To make a reasonable guess about what will happen
unlike fractions
Fractions with different denominators
likely
Having a greater than even chance of happening
x-axis
The horizontal line on a coordinate grid, or plane
y-axis
Th vertical line on a coordinate grid , or plane
fraction
A number that names a part of a whole or part of a group
numerator
The number above the bar in a fraction that tells how many parts of the whole or group are being considered
x-coordinate
The first number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move horizontally
denominator
The number below the bar in a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole or group
y-coordinate
The second number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move vertically
equivalent fractions
Two or more fractions that name the same amount
equilateral triangle
A triangle with three equal, or congruent, sides
acute triangle
A triangle with three acute angles
isosceles triangle
A triangle with two equal, or congruent, sides
obtuse triangle
A triangle with one obtuse angle
scalene triangle
A triangle with no equal, or cobgruent, sides
parallelogram
A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and equal, or congruent
right triangle
A triangle with one right angle
rhombus
A parallelogram with four equal, or congruent, sides
trapezoid
A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
chord
A line segment that has endpoints on a circle
Venn diagram
A diagram that shows relationships among sets of things
diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has endpoints on the circle
circle
A closed figure made up of points that are all the same distance from the center
A line segment that has one endpoint at the center of a circle and the other endpoint on the circle
center
The point inside a circle that is the same distance from each point on the circle
compass
A tool used to construct circles
line symmetry
What a figure has if it can be folded about a line so that its two parts match exactly
transformation
A movement of a figure to a new position by a translation, reflection, or rotation
rotational symmetry
What a figure has if it can be turned about a central point and still look the same in at least two positions
translation
A movement of a figure to a new position along a straight line
congruent
Having the same size and shape
reflection
A movement of a figure to a new position by flipping the figure over a line
similar
Having the same shape but possibly different in size
rotation
A movement of a figure to a new position by rotating the figure around a point
tessellation
A repeating pattern of closed figures that covers a surface with no gaps and no overlaps
positive numbers
All numbers to the right of zero on the number line
degree
Fahrenheit ( F)
A standard unit for measuring temperature
opposites
Numbers that are the same distance from zero but in opposite directions from zero
degree Celsius ( C)
A metric unit for measuring temperature
inequality
A mathemmatical sentence that shows that two expressions do not represent the same quantity
negative numbers
All numbers to the left of zero on the number line
ordered pair
A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate grid; the first number tells how far to move horizontally, and the second number tells how far to move vertically
gram (g)
A metric unit for measuring mass; 1.000 grams = 1 kilogram
thousandth
One of one thousand equal parts
mass
The amount of matter in an object
decimal point
A symbol used to separate dollars from cents in money and to separate the ones and the tenths places in a decimal
decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point

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