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psyc. chp 5

Terms

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Fixed-Ratio
Reward after a fixed number of correct behaviors.
Variable-Ratio:
Reward after an average number of correct behaviors.
Fixed-Interval
Reward for correct behavior, after a fixed amount of time elapsed.
Variable-Interval:
Reward for correct behavior, after a fixed average amount of time elapsed.
imitate
Attention (care about what other people are doing) - Remember (memory of what people are doing) - Produce (ability to reproduce behavior) - Motivation (the behavior produces desirable results)
Latent Learning:
creating a cognitive representation without need of reinforcement
EEA
A statistical composite of the adaptation-relevant properties of the ancestral environments encountered by the ancestral members of a species.
Experience Expectant:
Under normal development certain behaviors will arise (because the brain expects exposure to certain experiences under normal development)
Syntax:
The universal component of grammar that arranges words into phrases and sentences.
Experience Dependent:
Individual differences in experience can lead to individual differences in abilities.
Learning
Learning is defined as enduring change in (a) behavior or (b) mental representation as a result of experience.
Behavioral Psychologists
Focus on how behavior changes as a result of experience.
Cognitive Psychologists:
Focus on how mental representations change as a result of experience.
Common beliefs
We can’t measure mental states (only behavior) - The mind is a blank slate - Experience is more important than biology*
Tabula Rasa:
The mind is a blank slate
Extinction
When predictive value decreases, the unconditioned stimulus will no longer elicit the unconditioned response.
Spontaneous Recovery
After extinction has occurred, sometimes organisms will respond to the unconditioned stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization:
The Conditioned Response will be elicited by stimuli similar to the Conditioned stimulus.
Operant:
Acquiring complex behavior that is not built upon simple biological reflexes.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect:
We remember what works and what doesn’t work.
Reinforcements:
Experiences that increase the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur again.
Punishments:
Experiences that decrease the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur again.
Positive Reinforcement:
Increasing the likelihood of a particular behavior by Adding a positive stimulus.
Conditioned Reinforcers:
Things that we associate with positive or aversive outcomes.
Positive Punishment:
Decreasing the likelihood of a particular behavior by Adding an aversive stimulus.
Negative Punishment:
Decreasing the likelihood of a particular behavior by Taking away a positive stimulus.
Shaping:
Creating complex behavior via schedules of reward.
Continuous Reinforcement:
Rewarding every instance of correct behavior.
Partial Reinforcement:
Inconsistently rewarding the correct behavior (e.g., every other time).

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