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us hist ch. 25


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The Wagner Act
Legalized union membership in the US. This was made after NIRA was shot down by the Supreme Court. Also called National Labor Rights Act (NLRA)
History behind the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO):
Labor leaders wanted AFL to do more for the labor force. In 1935, Lewis and other leaders from primary unskilled unions formed the Committee for Industrial Organization within the AFL. AFL ordered it to be disbanded in 1936, but they refused. In 1938, the
sit-down strike
A new, militant tactic that CIO used. The workers would stop work and refuse to leave the shop floor, thus preventing the employer from reopning with replacement workers (scabs).
The most famous sit-down strike: 1936-1937
Strike took place at the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan. Resulted in General Motors recognizing the United Auto Workers.
The Communist Party in the US
Didn't have much popularity until 1930s when it attracted new members and exerted a lot of influence.
How did the Communist Party attract members?
The party talked of the coming revolution and adopted Stalin's Popular Front strategy
Popular Front strategy
When the communist party cooperates with a range of antifascist groups and governments (including Roosevelt's New Deal)
The most prominent group on the right was the:
American Liberty League (consisted primarily of conservative businessmen)
Charles Coughlin
A popular priest who used his popular natoinal radio show to reach a mass audience. He accused Roosevelt of being a Communist and a dictator.
End Poverty in California (EPIC)
An effort by socialist Upton Sinclair (author of The Jungle) to propose more sweeping solutions than the New Deal. It would take over idle factories and farms in CA and run them to be cooperatives(groups of people), so the unemployed could get jobs.
Francis Townsend
Proposed a tax to generate enough money to give everyone over 60 years old a monthly pay.
The most serious threat to Roosevelt from the left came from:
Huey Long
Huey Long and his "Share Our Wealth" Society
The flamboyment populist governor and senator of Louisiana He made the "Share our Wealth" Society that proposed that we should take money from the rich and distribute it to everyone else. He wanted to run against Roosevelt but was asssinated in 1935.
Motion pictures (movies) with sound. 'The Jazz Singer' 1927 was the first movie to use sound.
Eleanor Roosevelt
First Lady who supported the civil rights cause. 1935: She organized a concert by black singer Marian Anderson on the steps of Lincoln Memorial after Anderson was blocked from performing at the concert hall.
What did President Roosevelt do for blacks in 1941?
He formed a "black cabinet" of advisors and issued an executive order banning discrimintaion from government jobs.
African Americans switched their allegiance from the _____ party to the ____ party.
Republican party to the Democratic Party. [Roosevelt is democratic]
"Scottsboro Boys" case 1931-1935
Deomnstrated the limits of the justic system in terms of treating blacks fairly. 8 blacks were convicted of rape in Alabama on flimsy evidence. Although the Communist Party supplied lawyers during the appeal stage, some served lenghty prison sentences.
Women during the 1930s:
They were in a hard situation because they had to supply food but were critized from working at the same time. New Deal programs kind of ignored women. Despite criticism, more women were working ouside the home in 1940 than 1930
Frances Perkins
The first female cabinent member (Secretary of Labor)
Indian Reorganization Act
Largely undid the assimilationist Dawes Act by recognizing tribal ownership of reservation lands.
The New Deal programs for Indians and Mexicans.
The New Deal programs were helpful and profoundly affected Indians, but not to Mexicans (CCC and WPA excluded migrant farm workers by requiring a permanent address)
How were African Americans during the 1930s?
They were especially hard hit by the economic difficulties of 1930s. May New Deal programs ignored blacks.

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