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Inquisition Key Terms


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authorization or generally accepted theory; emphasizing a correct belief and ritualism
⬢ Emphasis on conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace
History of the history
Primary Source
⬢ Source that was created at the time being studied, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events
Secondary Source
⬢ Source that cites or comments or builds on primary sources
• “choice”, had to publicly, repeatedly, deliberately deny some aspect of Christian belief or practice
Middle Ages
⬢ early 500-1100; high 1100-1300; late 1300-1500
Trial by ordeal
• Judicial practice by which guilt or innocence of accused is determined by subjecting them to painful task. If it was completed with minimal or without injury → innocent
Trial by Combat/Judicial Combat
⬢ If accused was rich, would fight the other
⬢ Head of the Catholic Church; decides to delegate responsibility to find heresy to special groups
• Part of the Christian clergy generally entrusted with authority and oversight – didn’t actively pursue heretics
⬢ Administrative territorial unit administered by a bishop
Dominican Friars
⬢ One of the groups the pope assigned to pursue heretics; were mobile and had reputation for holiness
• Early inquisitor; “trying to bring something bad out of something bad”
Bernard Gui
⬢ Self inflicted/accepted to help repent for the sin
⬢ Originated in 3rd century; believed human beings were used as battle ground for good and evil; body (evil) and soul (good); believed in dualism
⬢ There was a god of good and a god of evil
⬢ No clergical people
⬢ Formal religious leadership within a religion
viva apostolica
⬢ Living poorly to lead a holy life and get salvation
The group Beatrice was involved; everything physical was Satain’s domain; believed in reincarnation; dualism
⬢ after 1 year of probabtion got Consolamentum; baptism without water, had to leave a life of self deial and minimal sin
Perfect/Good Christians/Good Men & Women
⬢ People who would be admitted to heaven; women were especially attracted to bc it was the highest authority among Cathars
⬢ The ordinary followers of the Cathars
⬢ Lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals
• Encouraged his followers to be poor; things the church did that didn’t have roots in the bible were false
Jacques Fournier
⬢ Defeats the Cathars; sets up tribunal in Pamiers in which he does 578 trials; rarely used torture; really good inquisitor
The Hundred Years’ War
⬢ War between England and France; both claimed to be the rightful ruler of France
⬢ Jews who settled in Germany, not as big a population
⬢ Jews in Spain and Portugal
St. Augustine of Hippo
⬢ Prolific writer, set tone for dealing with Jews; wrote Doctrine of Jewish Witness
Doctrine of Jewish Witness
⬢ Jews were to be tolerated and preserved in Chrstendom; Might serve as a pedagogical function
⬢ The belief that Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus
⬢ Claim that the blood of young Christian children was used in rites and rituals
blood libel
Host Desecration
⬢ Mistreatment of malicious use of a consecrated Host
⬢ Charging of interest of loans
To judaize
⬢ After converting, following or mingling with jews
• The way that “baptized” Jews can return to Judaism
Rite of re-Judaization
⬢ Converting out of a religion
⬢ Disrespectful use of the name of God
⬢ Riots broke out in Iberian Peninsula against Jews; largest conversion <200,000
Massacres of 1391
⬢ Rabbi who converted to Christianity; sincere Christian, raised up in the ranks to become Lord Chancellor
Pablo de Santa Maria
⬢ Dominican preacher zealous to convert others; wanted legislation to make J. laws worse
Vincent Ferrer
⬢ Arranged by Ferrer and Ferdinand I; dozens of rabbis come to debate with Catholic Clergy about religion; 14 rabbis convert
Tortosa Disputation
• Wrote “Be Not Like My Fathers”; considers Christianity irrational
Profiat Duran
⬢ Riots break out in Toledo against conversos
Toledo Massacres of 1449
⬢ Proof that one had no Jewish or Converso ancestry
Statutes of Purity of Blood
⬢ Pig; no longer associated with Judaism
• The Catholic rulers; united Spain’s two kingdoms and were eager to convert the Jews
Ferdinand and Isabella
Pope Sixtus IV
⬢ F + I asked Pope permission to establish Inquisition; he grants them permission the following year
⬢ 30 day period that Inquisitors offered that allowed people to confess and accuse judaizing
Edict of Grace
⬢ An establishment that kept a strict eye on tribunals; composed of hand picked theologians and lawyers; helped the general inquisitor
Suprema/Supreme Council
⬢ Lead official of the Inquisition
Inquisitor General
⬢ One of the most famous Inquisitor Generals; was responsible for the Trial of the Holy Child of La Guardia
Tomas de Torquemada
⬢ A garment heretics were forced to wear during an auto de fethat was characterized with either yellow or red crosses
⬢ Burned at the stake
Relaxation to the Secular Arm
⬢ Public penance for condemned heretics: involved Mass, prayer, a public procession of those found guilty and a reading of their sentences.
• A trial based on fabricated accusations on Jews and converses: desecrating a host, crucifying a Christian child whose heart they ripped our, then uttered incantations; brutal – jews and converses were tortured until they died or confessed • After
Trial of the Holy Child of La Guardia
⬢ Area of southeastern Spain that was initially governed by the Muslims until F+I succeeded in gaining control
⬢ King John separated 20,000 children from their parents and sent them to this island in the hopes that the parents will convert
St. Thomas (island)
⬢ King Manuel was pressured by his wife to start the Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
⬢ Becomes obsessed with David Reuveni and becomes a wandering preacher. Was condemned to die at the stake
Shlomo Molkho
⬢ Jews living in Portugal; since they all converted at once they had solidarity
“The Nation”
⬢ Where most Jews fled when during Portuguese Inquisition; Dutch were tolerant and Jews were successful
⬢ Became disenchanted with Judaism when he arrives in Amsterdam; excommunicated for rejecting organized religion
Uriel da Costa
⬢ Rationalist, laid the groundwork for the Enlightenment; rejects Judaism and also gets excommunicated
Baruch Spinoza
community responses to a rabbi, then a rabbi's responses to the community
a bound Jewess
convert into a religion
practice requiring a woman to marry her brother-in-law after her husband dies
Levirate marriage
persons unwilling to convert from Judaism to another relgion

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