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APUSH 451-500


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Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
Created the detective story, influenced surrealism and symbolism. Wrote many poems and macabre short stories: "The Raven", "The Bells", "The Tell-Tale Heart", "The Gold Bug".
Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat- first American to be recognized internationally as a writer. Wrote The Sketch Book, including "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow."
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
What Whitman (1819-1892)
Leaves of Grass, 1855- his first volume of poetry. Broke from traditional forms/content of New England poetry, described life of working Americans. Celebrated democracy and people. Very patriotic, abolitionist, and radical.
Hudson School of Arrt
1825ish, a group of American painters led by Thomas Cole did landscapes with mystical overtones, a new area. Focused on NY's Hudson River.
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
In 1831, Tocqueville visited America from France, observed democracy in government and society. Wrote a 2 part book (1835, 40) discussing democracy's advantages and disadvantages. Discussed American practicality over theory, industrial aristocracy, and conflict between masses and individuals.
Millerites: follolwers of William Miller, sold possessions because they through the world would end in 1843/44. Ended up becoming 7th Day Adventists.
Mormons; Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in NY, 1830. 1843 announced that God sanctioned polygamy, led to uprising against Mormons in 1844. Brigham Young led them to Utah, founded own social order.
Brook Farm, New Harmony, Oneida
Utopian socialist community, Massachusetts, 1841-47. Indiana utopian settlement, 1825-27, 1000 settlers. NY perfectionist group; polygamy, communal property/children.
Believed in Jesus, and a mystic named Ann Lee. Celibate, so numbers only increased through recruitment- eventually ceased to exist.
Lyceum Movement
1800s developed, response to higher education. Associations sponsored lectures, concerts, debates, etc. Led to increase in number of higher-ed institutions.
Dorothea Dix
Reform to treat mentally ill well, began in 1820s campaigned to improve jail, poorhouse, asylum conditions. First woman to speak to Massachusetts state legislature.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842- Massachusetts Supreme Court. Conspiracy laws don't apply to unions, strikes for a closed hop are legal, unions are not responsible for illegal actions by their members.
Rise of labor unions, National Trade Union
1800s, unions became more common as factories grew. Wanted a shorter workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and no monopolies. The NTU was a collection of unions formed by skilled craftsmen.
Horace Mann, public education
Secretary of Massachusetts' Board of Education, created first American public schools (modelled on Europe's) which became the nation's model.
American Temperance Union
1800s temperance movement head. Opposed alcohol.
Maine Law, Neal Dow
1838, Neal Dow founded the Maine Tmeperance Union. While mayor of Portland, Maine, he secured the 1851 Maine Law (forbade sale/manufacture of liquor).
Irish, German immigration
Irish: 1800s, tons from potato famine, poor peasants who labored later on canals/RRs. Germans: also poor, more skilled than Irish. Big impact on America's morals. Both groups drank heavily, supplied labor for early industrial era.
Women in 1800s
Not allowed in politics, couldn't own property. Rarely held jobs early on, became involved in reforms and factory work.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
Early feminist, worked with her husband for abolition and woman's suffrage. Helped Stanton organize the Seneca Falls convention in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Seneca Falls Convention
Leader in women's rights movement, organized 1848 Seneca Falls convention. Seneca Falls: 1848, Stanton read the "Declaration of Sentiment" listing discriminations against women. Adopted 11 resolutions, one calling for women's suffrage.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
Writer/lecture on behalf of education and household art. Established 2 women's schools, emphasized better teacher training. Opposed women's suffrage.
Cult of True Womanhood
Women against the women's mvmt believed in values of 'true womanhood': piety, domesticity, purity, and submissiveness. Feminists referred to those values as the "Cult of True Womanhood."
Prison reform
1790 Pennsylvania, solitary confinement to induce meditation and moral reform. Brought suicide and insanity. The 1816 Auburn system allowed prisoners to congregate in the day.
Marbury v. Madison
1803, Jefferson refused to appoint Adams' midnight judges. C.J. John Marshall established the principal of judicial review, but said that Marbury couldn't be appointed to a position no longer existing.
Fletcher v. Peck
1810, Court ruled that a state can't arbitrarily interfere w/ a person's property rights. (State had tried to revoke a land grant that had been obtained by corruption).
Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816, Supreme Court allowed to review the decisions of state courts.
Darmouth College v. Woodward
1819, Private corporation charters were contracts immune from impairment by states' legislative actions.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819- Congress had power to charter a bank as a gov agency, and states couldn't tax that agency.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824, only the federal gov had authority over interstate commerce.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831, Supreme Court said the tribes weren't foreign nations, and US had powers over tribes and responsibility for their welfare
Worchester v. Georgia
1832- Tribes wer sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authorities w/in their own boundaries. Jackson and Georgia ignored this ruling.

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