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Science 10 bc government exam prep


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copy deck
Describes chromosome that are similar in overall apperance and made up of the same kind of genes, thus forming a pair.
ion charge
An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged.
fluorescent bulb
A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light. This light then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light.
A distinguishing trait, quality, or property.
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be pedigreed.
mid-ocean ridge system
A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics. This uplifting of the ocean floor occurs when convection currents rise in the mantle beneath the oceanic crust and create magma where two tectonic plates meet at a divergent boundary. The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean, making the mid-oceanic ridge system the longest mountain range in the world. The continuous mountain range is 65,000 km (40,400 mi) long and the total length of the system is 80,000 km (49,700 mi).
atomic mass
The average mass of atoms of an element, calculated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally-occurring element.
A device that detects the presence of static electric charge on an object.
volcanic island arc
A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. There are two types of volcanic arcs: oceanic arcs (commonly called island arcs, a type of archipelago) and continental arcs.
Diatomic molecules are molecules made only of two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements. The prefix di- means two in Greek.
lethal genetic condition
An feature of an individual organism's genetic makeup (either a spontaneous mutation or an inherited trait) which will kill that organism.
A trait is a distinct phenotypic character of an organism that may be inherited, environmentally determined or somewhere in between.[1] For example, eye color is a character, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.
Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of a family of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting, or coagulation.
Punnett Square
The Punnett square is a diagram designed by Reginald Punnett and used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype. It is made by comparing all the possible combinations of alleles from the mother with those from the father.
monohybrid cross
A Monohybrid cross is a cross between individuals who are identically heterozygous at one locus; for example, Bb x Bb (see the Punnett square below).
The actual location along a fauly, usually at some depth, where earthquake energy originates.
three-way switch
A circuit with 1 switch and 2 loads would also be a 3-way, but over the years, the label of "3-way" has evolved into meaning any circuit with 2 switches in it.
To prove wrong by argument or evidence : show to be false or erroneous.
The placenta (Latin for flatcake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals (protherial (egg-laying) and metatherial (marsupial) mammals do not produce a placenta) and sharks during gestation (pregnancy).The placenta develops from the same sperm and egg cells that form the fetus, and functions as a fetomaternal organ with two components, the fetal part (Chorion frondosum), and the maternal part (Decidua basailis).
Venn diagram
are illustrations used in the branch of mathematics known as set theory. They show all of the possible mathematical or logical relationships between sets (groups of things).
right-hand rule
Also known as the Generator Rule this is a way of determining the direction of the induced emf of a conductor moving in a magnetic field.
The process in which the cytoplasm of a cell divides into two roughly equal halves.
ash fall
The very fine particles may be carried for many miles, settling out as a dust-like layer across the landscape. The very fine particles may be carried for many miles, settling out as a dust-like layer across the landscape
The asthenosphere is the ductile part of the earth just below the lithosphere, including the lower mantle. The asthenosphere is about 180 km thick.
An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.
A conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual stones that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts.
cell cycle
The life cycle of a cell. The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its replication.
Having pairs of homologous chromosomes.
equator of a cell
Where the spindle mechanism finishes growing toward the equator and interacts with the centromeres to line up and, later, move the chromosomes.
polyatomic ion(radical)
A polyatomic ion is a charged species (ion) comprised of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered as acting as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts.
seismic time distance graph
A graph of seismic earthquake movement over time and distance.
radiometric dating
Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, using known decay rates.[1] It is the principal source of information about the absolute age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of the Earth itself, and can be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials. Among the best-known techniques are radiocarbon dating, potassium-argon dating and uranium-lead dating. By allowing the establishment of geological timescales, it provides a significant source of information about the ages of fossils and the deduced rates of evolutionary change. Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts.
phenotypic ratio
The ratio of the generation that demonstrate a particular phenotypic trait.
phenotypic percentage
The percentage of the generation that demonstrate a particular phenotypic trait.
A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are tail-like projections extending approximately 5-10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.
Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows.
subduction zone is an area on Earth where two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another, with one sliding underneath the other and moving down into the mantle, at rates typically measured in centimeters per year.
A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument.
intermediate phenotype
A phenotype describes any observed quality of an organism, such as its morphology, development, or behaviour, as opposed to its genotype - the inherited instructions it carries, which may or may not be expressed.
A toxin (Greek: τοξικόν, toxikon, lit. (poison) for use on arrows) is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low concentrations. Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins and are capable of causing disease on contact or absorption with body tissues by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute (as in a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (as in botulinum toxin).
Seismometers are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, nuclear explosions, and other seismic sources. Records of seismic waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth, and locate and measure the size of these different sources.
distilled water
Distilled water is water that has virtually all of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving most if not all solid contaminants behind.
Able to sustain oneself or itself independently.
A compass, (or mariner's compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. It consists of a magnetized pointer free to align itself accurately with Earth's magnetic field, which is of great assistance in navigation.
Two or more chemical cells connected together with a negative and positive terminal. (see cell)
A dike or dyke in geology is a type of sheet intrusion referring to any geologic body that cuts discordantly across a rock.
A tsunami (pronounced /tsuːˈnɑːmi/) is a series of waves created when a body of water, such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced. Earthquakes, mass movements above or below water, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions, landslides, underwater earthquakes, large meteoroid or asteroid impacts and testing with nuclear weapons at sea all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.
The offspring resulting from cross-breeding of different plants or animals.
incandescent bulb(filament bulb)
The incandescent light bulb (also spelled lightbulb) or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence. An electrical current passes through a thin filament, heating it until it produces light. The enclosing glass bulb prevents the oxygen in air from reaching the hot filament, which otherwise would be destroyed rapidly by oxidation. The operating principle of an incandescent lamp is similar to that of blackbody radiation.
ferromagnetic metals(Fe, Ni, Co)
Magnetically charged metals.
residential electricity meter
The meter that records the power your house uses.
A zygote is a cell that is the result of fertilization. That is, two haploid cells—usually an ovum from a female and a sperm cell from a male—merge into a single diploid cell called the zygote (or zygocyte).
mass number
An integer equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus.
A semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively-permeable membrane, a partially-permeable membrane or a differentially-permeable membrane, is a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion."
Seismograph is another term used for seismometer, though it is more applicable to the older instruments in which the measuring and recording of ground motion were combined than to modern systems, in which these functions are separated. Both types provide a continuous record of ground motion; this distinguishes them from seismoscopes, which merely indicate that motion has occurred, perhaps with some simple measure of how large it was.
poles of a cell
The ends of a cell that chromosomes drift to during anaphase.
In geology, a sill is a tabular pluton that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or even along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. The term sill is synonymous with concordant intrusive sheet. This means that the sill does not cut across preexisting rocks, in contrast to dikes, which do cut across older rocks.
Something, often a trait, that disguises or conceals.
The number and variety of species present in an area and their spatial distribution.
A set of chromosomes containing only one member of each chromosome pair. The sperm and egg are haploid and, in humans, have 23 chromosomes.
F1 generation
The first filial generation, produced by crossing two parental lines.
erosion surface
A rock surface that is or has been exposed to weathering through the action of water, ice, or wind.
Probability is the likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen. Probability theory is used extensively in areas such as statistics, mathematics, science and philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying mechanics of complex systems.
dry cell
A dry cell is a galvanic electrochemical cell with a pasty low-moisture electrolyte. A wet cell, on the other hand, is a cell with a liquid electrolyte, such as the lead-acid batteries in most cars.
A 'seismogram' is a graph output by a seismograph. It is a record of the ground motion at a measuring station. The energy measured in a seismogram may result from an earthquake or from some other source, such as an explosion.
To throw or give off or out (as light or heat) .
Each of the two identical strands of a duplicated chromosome, which are joined together at the centromere.
A location on the surface of the Earth directly above the point(focus) where an earthquake occurs.
Self-replication, an organism making a copy of itself or replicating oneself. DNA replication or DNA Synthesis, the process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule. Semiconservative replication, mechanism of DNA replication. One of the main principles of the scientific method, a.k.a. reproducibility.
F2 generation
The second filial generation, produced by selfing or intercrossing the F1.
A rigid layer of the Earth consisting of part of the upper mantle and the crust.
spindle fibre
microtubules of the spindle that interdigitate at the equatorial plane with microtubules of the opposite polarity derived from the opposite pole microtubule organising centre. Usually distinguished from kinetochore fibres that are microtubules that link the poles with the kinetochore, although these could be included in a broader use of the term. Fibres that form during See [[nuclear division, which attach themselves to chromosomes and attract them towards the spindle poles.
viral specificity
The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. For example, given a medical test that determines if a person has a certain disease, the specificity of the test to the disease is the probability that the test indicates `negative' if the person does not have the disease.
A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground. Trenches are generally defined by being deeper than they are wide (as opposed to a wider gully or ditch), and by being narrow compared to their length (as opposed to a simple hole).
shell(Bohr Model)
An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. Electron shells are made up of one or more electron subshells, or sublevels, which have two or more orbitals with the same angular momentum quantum number l. Electron shells make up the electron configuration of an atom. It can be shown that the number of electrons that can reside in a shell is equal to 2n2.
volcanic vent
A volcanic vent is an opening in a volcanic structure through which lava or gases are emitted.
index fossil
A fossil known to have lived at a particular time in the Earth's history. It indicates the age of the rock in which it is found. (also known as guide fossil)
A region of the chromosome where paired chromatids are joined.

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